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Who Works the Second Shift?
In her 1989 book entitled The Second Shift, Arlie Hochschild explains that the household responsibilities that a wife and mother takes care of, aside from working her paid job, add up to at least 40 hours each week. The book and the sociological principle assert that even though Mom and Dad both have careers, it's usually Mom who also works the second shift at home, too. The second shift includes the work performed at home, in addition to the work performed in the professional sector.
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Where Did Gender Roles Originate?
A gendered division of labor is not a new concept. As we take a look back through human history, we can see long-standing tradition of divvying up work that needs to be done based on gender. It makes sense in most societies, particularly primitive societies that spend most of their time trying to survive, that the females (who physically must sit out some hunting trips to give birth every now and then) should take the bulk of the household chores. On the other hand, the males, who without exception never have to stay back to nurse a newborn, usually get on-the-go roles, such as tracking and shooting.
Even today, the traditional gendered division of labor exists around the world. The women of the Yanomami culture, an indigenous group found in the Amazon Rainforest, are responsible for all of the domestic duties. Conversely, the men are held responsible for going out on the hunt for meat.
Traditional and Egalitarian Strategies
When it works, it works. This basic arrangement of women nesting in the private sphere and men out circulating in the public sphere has been a functioning model of the gendered division of labor for millennia. Sure, there have been certain exceptions, such as during the world wars, when American women were allowed and encouraged to step up to the plate and fill in for the men who were off fighting for their country, but even then the women were expected to clock out of the factory at five and race home to cook dinner for the kids and mop that kitchen floor.
In a relationship, if both a man and a woman agree that the man should go out and earn the money while the woman stays home and takes care of the children and the home, then this traditional gender strategy makes for a happy family. If, however, both parents agree that both the wage-earning and the domestic duties should be evenly divided between Mom and Dad, then they are living the egalitarian plan. Because many people in today's society fall somewhere in between, Hochschild identified a third strategy called transitional.
Everyone's heard of the term 'Super Mom,' but what about 'Super Dad?' Today's men, not just women, are busy breaking the old gendered division of labor structure. Dads are opting to stay home and be the primary parent and errand-runner, while Moms continue breaking through glass ceilings and climbing new rungs of career ladders. However, despite this Generation Y (aka Millennial) attitude of equal partnership marriages, statistics reveal that women are still pulling more than their share of the weight; the cart is full of everything from meal planning to parent-teacher conferences, from toilet scrubbing to bill paying.
The second shift includes the work performed at home, in addition to the work performed in the professional sector. A gendered division of labor is not a new concept. As we take a look back through human history, we can see long-standing tradition of divvying up work that needs to be done based on gender. In a relationship, if both a man and a woman agree that the man should go out to earn the money while the woman stays home and takes care of the children and the home, then this traditional gender strategy makes for a happy family. If, however, both parents agree that both the wage-earning and the domestic duties should be evenly divided between Mom and Dad, then they are living the egalitarian plan.
Successfully completing this lesson means that you could subsequently be able to:
- Summarize The Second Shift by Arlie Hochschild
- Describe the sociological concept of the second shift
- Understand the history of gendered division of labor
- Outline the traditional gender strategy and the egalitarian plan
- Discuss role reversals in families
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Second Shift in Sociology: Definition & Roles
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