Emily Cummins received a Bachelor of Arts in Psychology and French Literature and an M.A. and Ph.D. in Sociology. She has instructor experience at Northeastern University and New Mexico State University, teaching courses on Sociology, Anthropology, Social Research Methods, Social Inequality, and Statistics for Social Research.
Do you have access to clean, running water? Enough food to eat? Access to healthcare and education? These basic necessities are part of what we refer to as development, which broadly refers to the basic standard of living that people in a particular place have. Development refers to everything from access to healthcare and education to whether or not people have food and shelter. Development is a broad term, but it's something that agencies such as the World Bank and the United Nations are dedicated to increasing in countries across the world. Agencies like these seek to promote better lives for the world's poor, particularly in what we call underdeveloped countries, or countries with very low development.
So how do we measure development exactly? There are a number of different indicators that we use to understand the development of a particular country. Let's talk about this in more detail.
When we talk about social indicators of development, we're talking about things that affect the well-being of individuals and communities. Social indicators are meant to help us understand how a community might be faring. One key measure of social development is access to healthcare. In many places inadequate access to healthcare leads to the prevalence of death by preventable diseases, such as diarrheal diseases. In many countries in the world, even access to things such as hospitable beds is limited. For example, in many parts of Africa there are fewer than 10 hospitable beds per 1,000 people.
Another major concern is access to appropriate sanitation. According to the World Health Organization (better known as the WHO), nearly a billion people lack access to a toilet, which consequently contaminates drinking water and spreads infectious diseases. This limited access to healthcare can lead to a high infant mortality rate (IMR), or the number of children who die per every 1,000 born. The IMR is highest in Sub-Saharan and West Africa, as well as parts of the Middle East. The highest IMR is in Afghanistan, where there are approximately 112 deaths per 1,000 births. Pregnant women often do not have access to things such as prenatal care.
In contrast, the fertility rate is the number of children born per 1,000 women. (As an aside, this is much different from the biological potential one has to bear children, which is known as fecundity). Fertility rates are much higher in developing countries than in developed ones. The fertility rate is highest in parts of Africa and Asia. The highest fertility rates in the world are found in Afghanistan, where approximately five children are born to each woman, on average. In contrast, Singapore has the lowest fertility rate in the world, with approximately 0.82 children born per woman.
Why is this a social indicator? Fertility is related to things such as access to birth control or education about family planning. This is often lacking in countries that are highly underdeveloped. This helps to explain why fertility rates are generally higher in developing countries.
Another important social indicator is education. Agencies such as the World Bank tend to measure this according to a country's literacy rate, or the percentage of the people in a country who are able to read and write. The lowest rates of literacy are found in parts of Africa, where in countries such as Niger, only about 17% of people ages 15-24 are literate. In many parts of Europe, however, about 90-100% of people are literate.
While these measures are troubling, there have been some important improvements. According to the United Nations, the number of people living in extreme poverty, or on two U.S. dollars per day, has declined. Enrollment in school in many developing countries has also increased. And, while it's still high in many places, the infant mortality rate has declined overall in the last few decades.
One key measure of economic development is gross national income (GNI), which is basically the share of a country's total income that each person has. This statistic is calculated by dividing a country's total income by each person. In very poor countries, such as Niger and Mali, each person has less than $1,000 U.S. per capita per year (as an aside, per capita simply means per person).
Another important measure of economic development is the type of economy that a country has, or which economic sector accounts for the largest share of production. Generally, we can think of three major sectors: agriculture, known as the primary sector; manufacturing, known as the secondary sector; and services, known as the tertiary sector. As a country develops, its economy shifts from the primary sector to the tertiary sector. Many of the poorest economies in the world rely on the primary sector for most production. In many parts of Western Europe and the U.S., for example, the tertiary sector is the primary driving force of the economy. In general, countries that rely on the primary sector have much lower GNIs than countries in the secondary and tertiary sector. For example, Niger relies primarily on agriculture and, as we said before, has a very low GNI.
Agencies such as the World Bank and United Nations note the connection between lack of education and underdevelopment in the economy. In order to modernize the economy, countries must have a skilled and educated workforce.
All right, let's take a moment to review. Taken together, development refers to the well-being of people in a particular country across a number of indicators. Whether people have access to healthcare, education, or clean water are all related to development. Agencies such as the World Bank and the United Nations work to improve measures of development in countries across the world.
Social indicators of development refer to things such as access to quality healthcare or proper sanitation. Limited access to healthcare can lead to a high infant mortality rate, or the number of children who die per 1,000 born. Fertility rate, or the number of children born per 1,000 women tends to be higher in developing countries, as women tend to have more children, at least partially due to lack of access to contraceptives or education about family planning.
Literacy rate, or the number of people in a population who can read and write, is also much lower in developing countries. Lack of education contributes to low rates of literacy in many places.
Economic indicators such as gross national income (GNI), or the share each person has of a country's total income, also tell us about development. In poor countries, as you might expect, people have very small shares of the GNI. The type of production, or the economic sector, is also important. Poor countries in places like Sub-Saharan Africa often rely on agriculture, whereas wealthier countries have a more diverse economy.
While there's still much to be done in increasing development across the world, there have been some hopeful signs of improvement in health, education, and the economy.
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