Back To CourseBusiness 109: Intro to Computing
10 chapters | 84 lessons | 9 flashcard sets
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Paul has a PhD from the University of British Columbia and has taught Geographic Information Systems, statistics and computer programming for 15 years.
All software applications require a software license in order to run. A software license is a legal instrument that governs how the software can be used and distributed. When you download or install software, you are asked to agree to the terms of a license. If you are like most computer users, you probably don't read the entire license in any detail.
Software is generally copyright protected, unless it is specifically made available in the public domain. A typical license grants a user permission to use one or more copies of the software without copyright infringement.
A license does not mean you have to pay for the software - even free software is licensed. A license is simply the mechanism that authorizes you to use the software, separate from any fees you may need to pay to obtain a license. Commercial software is software that is produced for sale.
Software falls into two broad categories: proprietary software and open-source software. Each will be discussed in some detail.
Proprietary software consists of software that is licensed by the copyright holder under very specific conditions. In general, you can use the software, but you are not allowed to modify the software or distribute it to others.
The original source code for the software is not available, which means you can't see the actual code written by the programmers. Proprietary software is, therefore, also referred to as closed-source software. This is done on purpose to protect the intellectual property invested in software development. If the source code were released, even with copyright restrictions, competitors could benefit from using this code.
Many proprietary software applications are also commercial, meaning that you have to pay for a license. However, many other proprietary software applications are free. The fact that software is free does not mean it is not proprietary.
There are numerous examples of proprietary software. Both the Windows and Mac operating systems are proprietary, and so are many of the typical software applications used in organizations, such as Microsoft Office. Many specialized software applications, such as those used for database management and various types of enterprise information systems, are also proprietary. In many cases, software companies have invested many years of software development into a product. By making the software proprietary, they are protecting their investment and making it possible to commercialize their software. The revenue from software sales can then be used to continue developing the software.
Shareware is proprietary software that is made available to users at no cost under certain conditions. For example, shareware may have limited functionality relative to the commercial version of the same software, or the license for the software may expire after a certain trial period. The rationale behind shareware is to give potential users the chance to evaluate the software before investing in a license fee. Trial versions of commercial software fall under the shareware category.
Open-source software, as the name suggests, is software for which the source code is released. This means that users can look at exactly how the software was created using one or more programming languages. This is done on purpose so that anyone can benefit from using the code. A typical license for open-source software gives users the right to modify and distribute the software.
Open-source software is typically free to use, which has led to the use of the term free and open-source software, or FOSS. This acronym is widely used, but many people use 'FOSS' and 'open-source software' interchangeably.
Open-source software is often developed in a collaborative manner, where many users contribute to ongoing improvements. Typically, a user community maintains a website where the latest version of the software can be obtained and where users can share ideas on how to use and improve the software.
The license for most open-source software uses what some have called copyleft. This is a play on the word 'copyright.' To understand what this means, it is worth considering how open-source software could be misused by someone. Consider that anybody can download, modify and distribute open-source software. What would stop a company from creating its own version of the software and then start selling it? That is where copyleft comes in. The license for open-source software specifically states that a user is not allowed to put restrictions on its use or distribution. So, by agreeing to the license, you can't start selling the software later.
Copyleft uses copyright law to make open-source software freely available to be modified, requiring that all modified and extended versions are to be free as well. The most widely used example of a copyleft license is the GNU Public License, or GPL. So, when you look at software and you see that the license is GPL, this means the software is open source.
There are numerous examples of free and open-source software applications. One of the most successful examples is the Linux operating system. Linux is used by many organizations and has also resulted in numerous spinoff efforts. For example, the Android operating system used on mobile phones is based on Linux and is also free and open source.
Open-source software has become very popular. Think of any proprietary software application, and there is likely a free and open-source alternative that provides similar functionality. If so much software is free, why do organizations keep paying for commercial software? There are a number of reasons, but some of the key reasons are:
1. Commercial software is often a little more polished and easier to use. For example, the Linux operating system is very powerful but can be difficult to use by someone who is just getting started with computers. Some open-source software is mostly for computer enthusiasts who enjoy figuring stuff out when it comes to computers. If you have a particular job to do, it may be most cost-effective to pay for a license and save time by using a software application that is easier to use.
2. Open-source software is developed by a user community, but this often lacks critical support services. Consider an organization that has built their entire database using open-source software. Everything works great until one day the entire system crashes and they risk losing all their data. Who is going to help fix the problem? You can likely find consultants who specialize in that type of software, but software from a commercial vendor often comes with some type of support.
In practice, you will likely use both proprietary software and free and open-source software - often without realizing which one you are using. For example, perhaps you are using the Windows operating system, and you have Microsoft Office installed because that is what everyone else in the office is using. Those are examples of software applications that are both commercial and proprietary. You also have iTunes installed to manage your music, which is both free and proprietary. Your web browser is Mozilla Firefox, which is free and open-source software.
Next time you install some new software, read the license to see what type of software you are really using. And remember, just because some software is free does not mean it is also open source.
All software applications require a software license, which is a legal instrument that governs how the software can be used and distributed. Proprietary software consists of software that is licensed by the copyright holder under very specific conditions. Typically, you are not allowed to modify or distribute the software. Some propriety software is commercial, and you have to pay for a license, but other proprietary software is free.
Free and open-source software is software that is freely distributed and for which the source code is released. The license for this type of software states that you can use, modify and distribute the software. A typical license also states that any future releases of modified versions of the software can only be released under the same conditions. This keeps open-source software both free and open source. Some of the most successful examples of open-source software are the Linux and Android operating systems. Despite the widespread availability of free software, it may be cost-effective to pay for a commercial software license based on the ease of use and availability of support.
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Back To CourseBusiness 109: Intro to Computing
10 chapters | 84 lessons | 9 flashcard sets