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Characteristics of Speech Sound Errors: Speech & Communication Disorders

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  • 0:05 Speech Sound Disorders
  • 0:50 Articulation Defects
  • 2:30 Phonological Process Disorder
  • 4:06 Fluency Disorder
  • 5:26 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Valerie Houghton, Ph.D.

Valerie holds a Ph.D. in Health Psychology.

In this lesson, we explore speech sound disorders, which include articulation deficits, phonological process disorder and fluency disorder. Also learn the characteristics of each of these disorders.

Speech Sound Disorders

Have you ever had one of those days when you felt tongue-tied? You knew what you wanted to say, but you just couldn't get the words out. For many of us, this is just a passing moment, but for some children, it is a daily condition that they cope with. In this lesson, we will discuss speech sound disorders, which include articulation defects, phonological process disorders and fluency disorder.

Speech is our verbal way of communicating, and it has a phonetic level as well as a phonological level. The phonetic level is also known as 'articulation' and is concerned with the act of producing consonants and vowel sounds, while the phonological level is concerned with how the brain organizes the speech sounds into patterns.

Articulation Defects

An articulation defect is a speech sound disorder that affects the phonetic level. Children with this defect will have difficulty saying certain vowels and consonants. Articulation defects are common in children and often are not permanent conditions. Articulation defects can be caused by hearing loss, allergies or anatomical problems and are typically detected in children who are between the ages of five and eight.

There are four different articulation errors that can be made when producing speech sounds: Substitutions,Omissions, Distortions and Additions. An easy way to remember these is to use the acronym SODA.

  • A speech sound error of the substitution type means that one sound is replicated for another sound. For example, 'w' is substituted for 'r,' so that 'rabbit' sounds like 'wabbit.'
  • A speech sound error of the omission type means that a sound in the word is omitted - for example, 'bown ake' for 'brown rake.'
  • A speech sound error of the distortion type means that a sound is produced in an unfamiliar way. Lisp sounds are an example of this error. A child with a lisp trying to say 'sun' might end up saying 'sssun.'
  • A speech sound error of the addition type means that an extra sound is inserted within the word - for example, 'buhlack horse' for 'black horse.'

Phonological Process Disorder

The palate of the mouth is involved in disorders such as velar fronting and backing
Velar Fronting Diagram

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