Chris has an M.A. in history and taught university and high school history.
We see adaptations everywhere in the natural world: moths are colored differently to avoid being seen by predators, sharks can smell blood from miles away, and polar bears have developed a thick coat of fur to shield them from their arctic habitat.
Humans also adapt to their surroundings. Settled agriculture, for instance, is one of the foundations of modern society, and as humans have spread across the globe, they have adapted and found ways to till the soil in some of the most remote areas of the world. One technique, used throughout history and today for planting and harvesting in mountainous outposts is step agriculture.
Step agriculture, also known as terrace agriculture, is a system where steep hills or mountainsides are cut to form level areas of arable land. The areas of flat ground allow for the planting of crops that require large amounts of water and a level surface, since leveling the ground tends to prevent rainwater from running down the mountainside. The terraces are often built up and down hills, and appear to ascend or descend like steps (see photo below). Without such methods, sustained settlement in high elevation regions would not be possible.
Several civilizations throughout history pioneered the practice of step agriculture in various mountainous regions throughout the world, and one is even considered a UNESCO World Heritage Site. To better understand step agriculture, let's examine a couple of examples.
Inca Empire, Andes
The Inca built an empire based in the Andes Mountains in modern-day Peru prior to the sixteenth-century arrival of European colonists and the Spanish conquistadores. To feed that empire, the Incans developed a step agriculture system that carved the Andean mountainsides into chunks of level, arable land. On these steps, they grew the principal Andean staples: maize, potatoes, and native crops like yucca. Though the Incan Empire declined and was eventually conquered by Europeans, the agricultural system they pioneered persevered. Today, it is still used as a farming method in some areas of the Andes.
Named a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995, the terraces of the step agriculture system developed by the Philippine Cordilleran tribes have been in continual use for over 2,000 years. The various steps are built along the mountains at several sites throughout the Ifugao province in the northern Philippines. The steps were designed specifically as high altitude rice paddies, and each step or group of steps has been passed down by Cordilleran families from generation to generation. The steps were built, and continue to be farmed, exclusively by hand.
- Step agriculture is the leveling of hilly terrain to create areas of level, arable ground suitable for agriculture.
- The level areas are often built up and down hillsides, resembling steps.
- The Inca independently pioneered step agriculture in the Andes and used it to feed their empire.
- The step agricultural system developed by the Cordilleran tribes in the Philippines is over 2,000 years old and is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
- Step agriculture: a system in which steep hills or mountainsides are cut to form level areas of arable land
- The Inca developed a step agriculture system that carved the Andean mountainsides into chunks of level land.
- For over 2,000 years, the Cordilleran tribes have used the various steps built along the mountains throughout the Ifugao province in the northern Philippines.
Reach the following goals as a result of memorizing the lesson on step agriculture:
- Discuss the prevalence of adaptations in our world
- Provide the definition of and another term for step agriculture
- Recognize the ancient sites of the Incas
- Describe the sites of the Philippines Cordilleran tribes
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