Description & Examples
Descriptive details will expand on the main idea in your topic sentence. Describe the colors, smells, textures and size of things. If your topic sentence claims that a fire was particularly damaging, you would include the color and size of the flames, the smoke, the smell of burning materials, etc. Description can include emotional details as well. Describe your feelings or the feelings others described.
Examples support topic sentences like evidence supports an argument. If you say that your car is in disrepair, give some examples. Is the engine barely running? Does it burn oil? Or, are you referring to the interior with exposed springs? Examples can also be shown with an anecdote, which are brief stories that illustrate the main idea in your topic sentence.
Let's say you're writing a compare/contrast essay about two brands of e-book readers. If your topic sentence says that one has an easy-to-read home page, you might discuss the font sizes and screen colors and follow with what's lacking on the other brand's home page. If your topic sentence states that they're similar in many ways, show the many ways and not just one or two.
Reasons & Explanations
Use reasons to support your opinions. If your main idea is about places to do homework, and you have a topic sentence stating that you feel comfortable in a particular coffee shop, include the reasons. Is it the lighting? The music? Also, if you dislike something, be prepared to include the reasons if you want your claim to be effective.
Explanations focus on clarifying an idea for readers who are unfamiliar with the topic. For example, if your topic is about taxes, and your topic sentence is about tax increment financing, you would include an explanation of what that is.
Facts & Evidence
Describe a problem or an idea that you've stated in your topic sentence. If, for example, you're writing a persuasive essay about green energy, a topic sentence might state a problem that a lot of people have with it. You would then describe the problem and provide facts to support it, or you could counter with evidence that shows how the problem can be solved.
Connect to the Topic Sentence
All the supporting details should relate closely to the topic sentence and generally to the main topic of your essay. For example, if your topic is gun control, all paragraphs should focus on some element of gun control, and nothing else. If you have trouble staying focused, you can easily plan your paragraphs by writing out your topic sentence and adding the supporting details in a list. When you get to the draft stage, you can form sentences from the details you've got in the list.
When writing, it's really important to keep your reader engaged. Whether you're writing a persuasive piece or a narrative, you want to be descriptive and to the point. Be sure to include supporting details in your writing to provide information that supports the topic sentence. To do this, you can use descriptive words, examples, comparisons, reasons, explanations, facts and connect to the topic sentence or subject.
By the time you are done with this lesson you should be able to:
- List the types of supporting details for different kinds of essays
- Describe different styles of supporting details
- Recall how to connect your supporting details to the topic sentence