Synapsis & Crossing Over in Meiosis

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  • 0:00 Meiosis
  • 1:33 Synapsis
  • 2:44 Crossing Over
  • 4:13 Genetic Diversity
  • 5:04 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Adrianne Baron

Adrianne has taught high school and college biology and has a master's degree in cancer biology.

This lesson will cover synapsis and crossing over that occur during the process of meiosis. We'll look at exactly when these occur and how they can lead to greater genetic diversity.

Meiosis

Stop to think for a moment about your immediate family. Do you have some physical characteristics that look more like one of your parents than the other? Are there some characteristics that are the same among you and your siblings? I bet you can readily tell the differences between you and your siblings. Is there a member in your family that doesn't look anything like the rest of you guys at all? How does that happen when you guys all came from the same two people?

One of the major reasons for the similarities and differences is the process of meiosis. Meiosis is the division of genetic material and multiplication of cells to produce reproductive cells. Chromosomes are the coiled form of the genetic material that is visible when cells are ready to multiply. Meiosis creates reproductive cells that have 23 chromosomes. When we are created, a reproductive cell from each parent joins together and contributes its 23 chromosomes. All of our cells end up with a set of 23 chromosomes that contains one copy of each chromosome from our moms and one from our dads.

Well, so far this sounds like you and your sisters and brothers should look just alike. That would be the case if certain events didn't take place when each reproductive cell is created. Let's see how this seemingly simple process leads to the differences within your family.

Synapsis

The beginning of the process is usually the best place to start anything, so let's do that here. Meiosis starts with one cell that contains a set of 23 chromosomes, giving a total of 46 chromosomes. Remember that each of the 23 chromosomes is different and there are two copies for each chromosome. Just before the start of meiosis, the chromosomes duplicated, so there are two copies of the mom's chromosomes and two copies of the dad's chromosomes. The two copies of each chromosome are referred to as homologous chromosomes.

The homologous chromosomes may or may not be in the same place in the cell when it is time for meiosis to start. It is imperative that the homologous chromosomes get together prior to the cell dividing in meiosis. The coming together and pairing of homologous chromosomes is referred to as synapsis. Synapsis takes place during prophase I, or the first stage of meiosis. It helps to ensure that each cell created when the cell divides has a full set of chromosomes.

Crossing Over

Now we're getting to the fun part where we all become a little different. When synapsis happens, the homologous chromosomes end up next to each other. Each set of homologous chromosomes contains the same genes on them in the same location. There are two identical strands of genetic material that make up each chromosome called sister chromatids. The set of homologous chromosomes will be composed of four sister chromatids called a tetrad.

One of the sister chromatids from each chromosome will have the chance to exchange genetic material with a sister chromatid from the homologous chromosome. This exchange of material is called crossing over. The name tells you what you need to know. The sister chromatids cross over each other and everything from the point of cross over down to the end of the chromatid is switched between the chromatids.

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