Now that we know the vocabulary for the days and months of year in Spanish, we can talk about days and dates in more detail. In this lesson, we will learn the different structures used when talking about days and dates in Spanish.
What's the Date?
Before we start this lesson on the days and dates in Spanish, I'm willing to bet that you've already seen a few examples and can maybe even recognize the structure of dates in Spanish. For example, take a look at el cinco de mayo. Can you tell me what date that is in English? That's right! May 5th!
El cinco de mayo. What vocabulary do we recognize in this phrase? We have a number (cinco) and a month (mayo). To say the date in Spanish we use the structure:
El día de mes de año. (The (number/day) of (month) of (year).)
Take note that we always say the day first, followed by the month. So, just as we saw, May 5th is el cinco de mayo.
Let's take a look at a few more dates:
June 30th is el 30 de junio, September 18th is el 18 de septiembre and November 3rd is el 3 de noviembre.
Now, what happens if it's the first of the month? In this case, we use primero in place of uno. For example, October 1st is el primero de octubre.
In Spanish, when the dates are written in numerical form, it follows the same structure of day, then month, then year. Take a look at the date 9/3/2013. Is the '9' referring to the day or the month? The day. And the '3'? The month. So, this date in written form would be el 9 de marzo de 2013.
What Day Is Today?
There are two questions commonly used to ask about days and dates. Cuál es la fecha? (What is the date?) To which we would respond with the previously mentioned structure. Hoy es el 15 de octubre. (Today is October 15th.)
Cuál es la fecha? is used to ask about the date, but if we wanted to ask which day of the week it is?
Qué día es hoy?
To respond to this question we would use the structure:
Hoy es (día de la semana).
Let's look again at those two questions and answers.
Cuál es la fecha? (What is the date?)
Hoy es el 15 de octubre (Today is October 15th.)
Y, qué día es hoy? (And, what is the day today?)
Hoy es martes. (Today is Tuesday.)
In the dialogue, we mention hoy, or today. Other key vocabulary to talk about days and dates are:
ayer (yesterday) and mañana (tomorrow).
La semana means week and el fin de semana (weekend).
But, how do we talk about the day on which something occurs? For example, 'On Monday I have my Spanish class.'
El lunes tengo mi clase de español. (On Monday I have my Spanish class.)
Note that we say 'el' lunes and not 'en' lunes.
If we have our Spanish class every Monday, we would make the 'el' plural and say
Los lunes tengo mi clase de español. (On Mondays I have my Spanish class.)
Dialogue: Schedule of Classes
Now that we know the basics, let's take a look inside a college campus as a group of students are talking about their class schedules.
Hola. Soy una estudiante nueva. (Hi. I'm a new student.)
Bienvenida. Pon tu nombre y la fecha. (Welcome. Put your name and date.)
Cuál es la fecha? (What's the date?)
Hoy es el 25 de agosto. (Today is August 25th.)
Qué día es mañana? (What day is tomorrow?)
Mañana es jueves. (Tomorrow is Thursday.)
Los jueves tengo la clase de matemáticas 51. (On Thursday I have Math 51.)
Qué clase tienes los viernes? (What class do you have on Friday?)
Los viernes tengo historia 101. (On Fridays I have History 101.)
Tienes el calendario? (Do you have a calendar?)
Cuándo tenemos vacaciones? (When do we have vacation?)
No hay clases el 2 de septiembre, el 14 de octubre, el 28 de noviembre porque son días festivos. (There aren't any classes September 2nd, October 14th and November 28th because they are holidays.)
Qué es el 28 de noviembre? (What is November 28th?)
Es el Día de Acción de Gracias. Y tenemos vacaciones de invierno el 24 de diciembre hasta el 3 de enero de 2014. (It's Thanksgiving Day. And we have winter vacation December 24th to January 3, 2014.)
Review of Days and Dates
To finish up this lesson, let's take a look back at the key grammar points for days and dates.
To ask the date we say, Cuál es la fecha?
To respond, the order is different than in English so remember to follow the structure:
El día de mes de año. For example, el 14 de febrero de 2013. In numerical form, this same date would be 14/2/2013.
To ask the day of the week we say, Qué día es hoy?
Hoy es sábado. (Today is Saturday.)
Let's say I have plans to play golf this Monday.
El lunes juego al golf. If it's something I will do every Monday, Los lunes juego al golf.
So, mark your calendars, agendas and keep practicing Spanish days and dates!
After watching this lesson, you should be able to interpret different grammatical structures for discussing dates and days with individuals in Spanish.