The Argonautica Plot Synopsis: The Myth of Jason and the Argonauts

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Max Pfingsten

Max has an MA in Classics, Religion, Philosophy, Behavioral Genetics, a Master of Education, and a BA in Classics, Religion, Philosophy, Evolutionary Psychology.

This lesson offers a complete plot synopsis of 'The Argonautica' by Apollonius of Rhodes. Discover the main characters of this romantic twist of a classic Greek myth and learn the similarities between this and 'The Odyssey.' Updated: 03/09/2020

A New Epic for a New Age

The Argonautica is one of my favorite epics. This epic has five things going for it. Two of these things it has in common with traditional Greek epics. First, it's full of gods, magic, adventure and fighting. Second, it offers us a window into the world that produced it.

Yet three of my favorite things are completely unique to The Argonautica. The Argonautica has incredibly human characters who respond to the world in a very relatable way. The Argonautica is also blessedly short; it's about a third of the size of The Iliad. But the thing that really sets The Argonautica apart from its predecessors is that The Argonautica is a love story.

Apollonius of Rhodes
Apollonius of Rhodes

Have you ever noticed that in every movie - be it about aliens, zombies, World War II or boxing - there's always a love interest involved? Well, that pattern really starts to take off in the West during the Hellenistic Period. And in the third century BCE, there was no better place for a new literary form to arise than at the Library of Alexandria, the greatest collection of writing in the world. And at the top of that library was Apollonius of Rhodes, the head librarian. From this lofty perch atop the collected works of Western Civilization, Apollonius aspired to match the great Homer and compose an epic for his age.

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  • 0:05 New Epic
  • 1:23 Pelias's Quest
  • 2:06 Argonauts Prepare
  • 6:13 Book III
  • 11:31 Book IV
  • 15:13 Epilogue
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Pelias's Quest for Jason

Meet Pelias, king of Iolcus. Pelias is in a bad position. As an illegitimate son of Poseidon and the former queen, Pelias's reign is on shaky ground. To secure his throne, Pelias has killed, imprisoned or exiled most of his family. This has angered most of the gods, except, of course, Poseidon. Hera decides Pelias must die! Athena agrees, and the two goddesses set about plotting Pelias's doom. They will use Pelias's cousin, Jason, to destroy the evil king. But rather than just giving Jason a knife and distracting the king, the goddesses plan this whole contrived, roundabout way to kill Pelias. Hera doesn't just want Pelias to die; she wants him to die horribly.

The Argonauts Prepare for Their Journey

Jason will go to Colchis, pick up a sorceress named Medea and bring her home with him, and she will kill the king in an inventive and awful manner. This may seem crazy to you or I, but Apollonius is simply retelling part of a story that is very, very old - the tale of Jason and Medea.

In that tale, Jason retrieves the Golden Fleece from the faraway land of Colchis with the help of the foreign sorceress, Medea. The two marry and make babies. Upon their return, Medea's magical powers attract the attention of King Pelias. Medea tells the king that she can use her magic to restore his youth. This is totally within her power, which she demonstrates by restoring an old goat to youth by submerging it in her magic cauldron. In a particularly sick twist, Medea convinces Pelias's beloved daughters that they must be the ones to perform the magical rite on their father. Yet she gives the girls the wrong potion, and Pelias ends up getting cooked alive by his own daughters.

That is the fate that awaits poor King Pelias - cooked alive by his own children. You and I know this. The goddesses know this. In the Hellenistic age, every child knows this. But Pelias doesn't know it. So when a prophet tells Pelias that a man with one sandal will bring about his downfall, Pelias thinks 'Well, I'll just kill anyone who comes up to me with one sandal.' But the gods throw Pelias a curveball. The prophesied one-sandaled man is none other than the King's cousin, Jason.

Now, as I mentioned, Pelias has a nasty habit of killing off relatives, but fortunately for Jason, instead of the showing up with one sandal at a nice private dining room where he could be disposed of quietly, Jason shows up in public - at the Olympics no less! Pelias can hardly sentence his cousin to death for a missing sandal in the middle of the Olympics with the greatest heroes of the Greek world standing on as witnesses. The people wouldn't like it, and the gods are already furious with Pelias. In short, Pelias cannot kill Jason.

Orpheus, Harakles, and Hylas join Jason on his mission
Jason and Argonauts

So instead of killing Jason, Pelias sets Jason an impossible task. Jason must sail to the far-off land of Colchis to retrieve the mythical Golden Fleece. And thus the goddess' plan is set into motion.

Hearing Pelias's challenge, over 50 heroes offer to help Jason in his quest, including Orpheus, the bard whose song could charm even the hounds of Hell; and the mighty Herakles, who is well-practiced at fulfilling impossible tasks; and even Hylas, Herakles'... uh… let's call him his squire. With this mighty crew of heroes assembled, the goddess Athena helps them build a magical singing boat called the Argo. So decked out, the heroes of the Argo - or Argonauts - set off to Colchis to retrieve the Golden Fleece, with two bloodthirsty goddesses to guide them along their way.

On their way there, the Argonauts get into adventures. They impregnate an entire island of women. They lose Herakles when a nymph kidnaps his squire, Hylas, and Herakles abandons them to find him. They rescue a prophet named Phineus from a gang of harpies that keep stealing his dinner. Phineus repays them with instructions for their journey. Taking Phineus's advice, the Argonauts stop on the island of Ares, where the birds of Ares shoot their arrow-like feathers at them. On that terrible island, the Argonauts discover a group of shipwrecked sailors from Colchis. Their leader is none other than prince Argus, grandson of the King of Colchis, Aietes. Their rescued friends guide the Argonauts to Colchis and get Jason an audience with the king.

Book III: Jason and Medea Fall in Love

Meanwhile, on Mount Olympus, Hera and Athena are hatching plans of their own. The goddesses know there is no way Jason can possibly hope to succeed on his own. Jason isn't exactly what one would call hero material. He's not invincible like Achilles, nor clever like Odysseus. Jason's heroic qualities are that he's good-looking and easy to get along with. This has served him well so far; after all, he's attracted a bunch of heroes to help him. But the only person powerful enough to handle what is to come is Herakles, and he's off looking for his boyfriend. Fortunately for the Argonauts, there is a sorceress in Colchis who can help them. Her name is Medea; she is King Aietes's daughter, Princess of Colchis, granddaughter of the sun. Her powers are vast and terrifying. Unfortunately, her loyalties lie elsewhere, and she is unlikely to help the Argonauts of her own will.

The two goddesses hatch a plot to get Medea to help Jason with his quest. They visit Aphrodite, the goddess of love. Athena and Hera beg Aphrodite to have her son, Eros (whom we call Cupid), make Medea fall in love with Jason.

At this point you may be wondering - why didn't the goddesses just help Jason themselves? Well, then they couldn't bring back Medea to kill King Pelias. This, of course, raises the question 'why don't they just kill king Pelias themselves?' All I can say is that Greek gods have a sick sense of humor, and they really enjoy watching people unwittingly destroy themselves through their own actions - in this case, sending his cousin Jason on an impossible quest, where he'll pick up a woman who will eventually kill Pelias.

Back in Colchis, Jason's meeting with King Aietes is not going well. Something about Jason just makes kings want to kill him in incredibly convoluted ways. Like Pelias, Aietes wants to kill Jason. But instead of just killing Jason, Aietes gives him an impossible task. Jason must harness a team of giant, fire-breathing super-bulls to a plough. He then must sow the field of Ares with dragon's teeth. These dragon's teeth will then sprout into full-grown warriors, whom Jason must kill singlehandedly.

As Jason pales at this incredible demand, Medea has just spotted him across a crowded room. Struck by Cupid's arrow, she falls helplessly in love with him. As a dumbfounded Jason disconsolately returns to his ship, Medea hurries to her bed chamber, full of concern for the beautiful Jason.

Jason and his men travel aboard the magical Argo

It is striking that Medea is not portrayed as the monstrous sorceress who will murder King Pelias. Instead, Medea comes across as a love-struck girl torn between the honor of her family and her powerful love for Jason. There's this beautiful scene where she weighs these two warring passions; in one hand she holds a potion that will protect Jason during his trial; in the other hand she holds a potion that will take her own life. Seeing all her intricate plans on the verge of ruin, Hera fills Medea with a fear of death and love of life, and the maiden finally resolves to help Jason.

Using the prince Argus as an intermediary, Jason and Medea arrange a meeting. Medea meets with Jason in the Shrine of Hekate, the goddess of magic. At first sight, Jason realizes that Medea is in love with him and he pours on the charm, complimenting her, beseeching her aide. Medea is overcome with love for the beautiful Jason. She hands Jason a potion of invincibility and advises him on how to best defeat the warriors born of the dragon's teeth. Her only request is that Jason remembers her fondly when he returns to his home. Now it is Jason's turn to be overcome. He sees Medea's selflessness and beauty and falls in love with her himself. He asks her to return to Greece with him as his bride.

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