The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: Definition, Summary & Significance

The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut: Definition, Summary & Significance
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  • 0:01 The Fundamental Orders
  • 0:33 Origins
  • 2:18 Provisions of the Orders
  • 3:14 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Michael Sweeney

Michael has taught college Art and secondary English and Social Studies. He has a Master of Fine Arts and a Masters of Library and Information Science.

Learn how the Fundamental Orders distinguished Connecticut colonies from Massachusetts' governance and how the agreement encouraged Connecticut to declare itself the Constitution State.

The Fundamental Orders

The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut was an early agreement between the colonial communities of Hartford, Wethersfield, and Windsor that established a representative government based on the example of a number of Massachusetts colonies. It's arguably the very first constitution of the American colonies. Made up of a preamble and 11 orders of law, the Fundamental Orders established a rule of law for these Connecticut colonies based on civil governance in relation to the word of God and the Congregationalist Church.


Connecticut colonials established their communities after splitting from Massachusetts communities in the early 1630s. The Connecticut General Court adopted the Fundamental Orders on January 14, 1639, although the date on the original document is 1638. This has been attributed to the colonists not following contemporary conventions for marking a year.

For two years prior to the adoption of the Fundamental Orders, the river port communities of Windsor, Hartford, and Wethersfield cooperated in collective governance by town representatives and magistrates. Working in collaboration, representatives of the three towns wrote the Fundamental Orders during this period.

Similar to Massachusetts, Connecticut towns were formed by Puritan Congregationalists, the Connecticut Colony's established religion. The Fundamental Orders were based on earlier Massachusetts models that used principles from both church and trade covenants of the time. Maintaining a religious, theocratic orientation, Connecticut tied participation and membership in government to church membership and documentation of religious affiliation.

Theocracy is governance by religious leadership with a presumption that leaders are divinely informed by God. The Fundamental Orders differed from the Plantation Covenant of the New Haven Colony only in that it did not make overt reference to the rules of scripture. The Plantation Covenant was a similar early constitution that explicitly required all members and representatives to be church members and required decision making in accord with the perfect rule of scripture. Unlike New Haven, the language of the Fundamental Orders focused primarily on civic life rather than religious affiliation or requirements.

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