Monica has taught college-level courses in Tourism, HR and Adult Education. She has a Master's in Education and is three years into a PhD.
Who Invented the Web?
In March 1989, Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee was trying to solve a problem, the solution to which eventually led to knighthood. Berners-Lee was working at CERN, a particle physical lab in Geneva, Switzerland. In the latter part of the 20th century, computers were connected on the Internet, but were not able to share information. They also operated differently. So if you wanted information from another computer, you would have to physically log in, or ask a co-worker.
Berners-Lee wanted to eliminate the hassle by using a hypertext, a text that contains links to other text, to share information between computers. A year later, his boss gave him time to work on it, using one of Steve Job's first products, the NeXT computer. Have you have heard of these three acronyms, hypertext markup language (HTML), hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) and uniform resource locator (URL)? Guess what? Those were the first three technologies that created the Web.
Berners-Lee and his colleagues believed that everyone could benefit from the Web. So in 1993, CERN agreed to make the Web royalty-free and available to everyone, forever. Once that was settled, Berners-Lee left CERN and founded the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) at MIT. W3C is still an operating community that focuses on Web development. But before we continue with its history, lets discuss the Internet.
Difference between the Internet and Web
The Internet is an information infrastructure that was introduced about 31 years before the Web. It should not be confused with the World Wide Web. J.C.R. Licklider, who some computer scientists consider the 'Father of the Internet', called it the Galactic Network concept, which was based upon the idea of a group of globally connected computers. Leonard Kleinrock and his colleague, Lawrence G. Roberts, believed that computers could talk to each other, so they tested the first telephone dial up between a computer in Massachusetts and one in California.
In the same year that millions of people watched Los Angeles cops chase football celebrity O.J. Simpson in his white bronco on live television, the Web made groundbreaking news. For example:
- The 'Internet in the box' became the first Internet connection package made available to the public.
- Netscape Navigator became the first commercial Web browser on the Internet. While it started out as a paid subscription service, Netscape Communications' policy changed when Microsoft launched Internet Explorer, which was available to the public for free.
- Cookies were created to keep track of your browsing history. The term refers to a tiny piece of data sent from a website to your computer for future reference.
1995 - 2000
The language differs from Java, which is used to build applications and platforms, like applets. Applets are programs that display games, interactive widgets and maps. The other cutting-edge development included Flash, a technology used to make videos and animations appear in the Web browser.
While many Web-related innovations occurred at the beginning of the new millennium, we'll focus on the iphone, a digital device that debuted in July 2007. In 2008, Apple added the drag and drop feature, which allowed users to play their favorite games. The company also added a date and time feature in 2010. Now, before you move on to the lesson summary, check out this infographic, which highlights the important moments in the Web's history.
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