Back To CourseHistory 104: US History II
14 chapters | 111 lessons | 10 flashcard sets
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Alexandra has taught students at every age level from pre-school through adult. She has a BSEd in English Education.
The term Holocaust typically refers to the persecution and mass murder of as many as 11 million people by the Nazis, or German fascists, between 1933 and 1945. Though history cannot hold just one person responsible for all of the atrocities carried out, the Holocaust corresponds with the political rise of one man: Adolf Hitler. He became Chancellor of Germany on January 30, 1933. By the middle of the next year, he was dictator with the title of Fuhrer.
Hitler had started cleansing, what he called, 'the master race' almost as soon as he took office. In addition to the nearly six million Jews he targeted, there were more than five million non-Jewish victims as well. The Nazi regime tried to eliminate anyone who might pose a political threat, including communists, journalists and various Christians who opposed Hitler, those who would 'dilute' the Aryan gene pool, such as Romani, Jews, blacks and the handicapped, and criminals and others who drained the economic system, in addition to people they just didn't like, such as homosexuals.
Depending on the offense, victims might find themselves subject to heavy labor, forced abortions and sterilization. They were very likely to have their assets stolen and then be imprisoned in a concentration camp anywhere in the Third German Empire, or Reich, where they were often executed or worked to death. The exact number of camps varies, depending on the definition, but there were dozens of main camps, with many sub-units, serving different functions. Current estimates total about 20,000 camps.
But since at least the end of WWI, Hitler had specifically blamed Jews for his nation's problems. Anti-Semitism wasn't a new phenomenon in Europe, but the Nazis ramped up the prejudice to a murderous level. First, Jews were identified by voluntary registration, and then other research, like census and immigration records and synagogue membership rolls, and through informants who were paid bounties. Then, beginning in 1933, a series of increasingly strict laws stripped away Jewish rights, including land ownership. They were barred from many professions like law, medicine, journalism and the military. By 1935, they had lost their citizenship, and even more personal, business and property restrictions and regulations were enacted in the coming years.
But the Night of Broken Glass, or Kristallnacht, in November 1938 marked a turning point in Jewish persecution. As retribution for the murder of a German embassy employee in Paris by a German-born Jewish student, more than 9,000 Jewish-owned businesses, homes and synagogues were destroyed or vandalized. As many as 91 Jewish men were murdered, and upwards of 30,000 were arrested and sent to concentration camps. Within days, the German government eliminated Jews from the economy, most remaining Jewish-owned property was seized and Jewish children were expelled from public schools. To add insult to injury, the Jewish community as a whole was fined one billion marks to pay for the damage of Kristallnacht.
After invading Poland in 1939, Hitler started separating the 'undesirable' citizens from the rest of the population. Hundreds of thousands of Jews were relocated into ghettos near railroad lines. Within months, Polish Jews became slaves and had to wear a white Star of David on their arms. Eventually, Jews throughout the Reich were required to wear the recognizable yellow Star of David on their chests.
But as the Nazis conquered more and more territory, they encountered more and more of what they called 'sub-humans,' including Allied POWs who fit their description. Germany began deporting Jews to concentration camps. Those who were allowed to remain at home for the time being became slave labor in the war industries. In newly-occupied lands, the easiest solution for the Nazis was to simply kill as many Jews as possible on the spot, or pay locals to do it for them, but many others were also sent to camps. Meanwhile, Hitler's allies started their own cleansing programs.
By the summer of 1941, the Fuhrer ordered the systematic extermination of all Jewish people in Europe. Called the Final Solution, this genocide program began at Auschwitz, but ultimately included six death camps, all in Poland, specially equipped for mass murder. European Jews, plus some other 'undesirables,' were typically deported by freight and cattle cars, packed shoulder to shoulder for days without room to sit, without protection from weather and without food, water or bathroom facilities. Those who survived the train ride were separated upon arrival.
Useful prisoners were tattooed with a number, stripped of their clothes and belongings, shaved and hosed down. They were often allowed to live as long as they were productive workers for the German war machine. Those who weren't useful enough were killed immediately, including almost all children and the elderly. A number of execution methods were tested, but by January of 1942, Zyklon-B gas became the preferred method. The earliest victims were buried in mass graves, but cremation soon became the only sustainable option.
There are very few known cases of resistance or rebellion in the camps or even the ghettos, and the Nazis suppressed all uprisings successfully. However, a few individuals did manage to escape to safety.
Besides being starved, terrorized, brutalized and worked to death, Nazi doctors viewed the masses of defenseless prisoners as lab rats - perfect for carrying out human trials on a variety of medical experiments beginning in 1942. Most fell into three categories. Some doctors worked to increase the survival rate of soldiers at the front. For example, they deliberately inflicted and then tested various treatments for diseases, poisons, frostbite, hypothermia and battle wounds, including amputations and transplants. Other doctors explored the most efficient ways to exterminate all the 'sub-humans,' such as sterilization and execution techniques.
Finally, some doctors tried to benefit the Aryan race, including artificial insemination and infamous experimentation on twin children, looking for ways to predictably breed multiple, perfect specimens of 'the master race.' Though twins had some of the best living conditions in Auschwitz, nearly all of them were killed when the tests were finished. There was other research, too. One lab successfully developed a method for making soap from human fat, while one failed to change eye color and another failed to make sea water safe to drink.
Over the next two years, the death camps were continually expanded, but following D-Day, the Allied invasion of Northern France on June 6, 1944, the camps increased the executions to a record daily high of 9,000 at Auschwitz - faster than they could dispose of the bodies. Then, after the Soviet army liberated the first camp in July, the Nazis started eliminating as much evidence as possible, destroying camps and moving the prisoners as the Allies closed in. By the time Auschwitz was discovered in January 1945, up to two million people had been murdered there. The first camp to be liberated by American troops was Buchenwald in April 1945.
Later that month, on April 30, 1945, Adolf Hitler committed suicide. Germany surrendered a week later. The war in Europe and the Holocaust were finally over.
Let's review. The Holocaust, between 1933 and 1945, was the murder of 11 million people at the hands of Hitler's regime in Nazi Germany. Five million 'undesirable' people and six million Jews were systematically stripped of their rights and property, imprisoned and often killed. The Final Solution attempted to exterminate all Jewish people in death camps, such as Auschwitz. Before their deaths, many prisoners were used as slave labor or as unwilling subjects in medical experiments. The Holocaust ended with Germany's surrender at the end of World War II in May 1945.
After finishing this video lesson, you could be able to discuss the Holocaust in Nazi Germany during World War II and Hitler's attempt at a 'final solution' to what he perceived to be the Jewish problem. You should have the ability to discuss the death camps, including Auschwitz, and the many atrocities inflicted upon Jews, Christians, communists and other people.
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Back To CourseHistory 104: US History II
14 chapters | 111 lessons | 10 flashcard sets