The Iliad & The Odyssey: Summary & Characters

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  • 0:02 Epic
  • 1:12 The Iliad
  • 3:41 The Odyssey
  • 5:28 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Christopher Muscato

Chris has a master's degree in history and teaches at the University of Northern Colorado.

Expert Contributor
Jenna Clayton

Jenna received her BA in English from Iowa State University in 2015, and she has taught at the secondary level for three years.

In this lesson, you will explore the themes and characters of two of the greatest works of Western literature: the ''Iliad'' and the ''Odyssey''. Then, test your understanding with a brief quiz.


What does it mean for something to be epic? Something that is incredible, legendary, or completely awesome. Even an epic fail, while disastrous, is notable for the scale and totality of the failure.

However, an epic can also refer to a form of literature. Epic literature is defined by a story about a larger-than-life hero on a journey involving mighty deeds, written in poetic verse and generally extremely lengthy. Epics are the oldest form of literature in the Western world, probably evolving from an oral tradition of storytelling.

The first epic stories were the Iliad and the Odyssey, both attributed to the blind poet Homer in the 8th century BC. These stories describe events of the Greek Bronze Age, during which many foundations of Greek culture were first established. The Iliad and the Odyssey blend events from Greek history, mythology, and culture that reveal the unique worldview of this ancient civilization. They are full of morals about human emotions, and things like vanity, pride, lust, and dishonor continually reappear, always to the detriment of the hero.


The Iliad is the first of the two books, taking place during the final weeks of the Trojan War, a major period of warfare between several of the powerful Greek cities. The most notable combatants were the city of Mycenae, led by Agamemnon, and the city Troy, governed by Hector. You don't really need to know the whole background of this war, but suffice it to say that it was caused by human emotions. People act out of vanity, pride, and lust, and the result is a major war that splits the Greek world. There's a pretty clear message here that these actions have negative consequences.

As the story begins, the Greek armies are heading towards a final, major battle resulting from the interference of the gods at the request of each city. Key to this is Achilles, a half-divine hero who is the greatest warrior in the world, and who is obsessed with proving his status as a hero. Achilles has to immortalize his name as a great warrior because he is mortal, despite the efforts of his immortal mother to give him eternal life. Achilles' mother, a nymph, dipped him in sacred water as a baby, making every part of his body impenetrable except his heel, where she held him. Although originally he fought for Menelaus, the brother of Agamemnon, Achilles is offended by the king and leaves, asking Zeus to bring the battle to a tipping point so that Menelaus will realize just how much he needs Achilles.

With that, the Trojan War reaches a major moment as the armies prepare to fight. There are several major battles, with each side being aided by the gods, and eventually Hector kills Achilles' close friend, Patroclus. Achilles rejoins the war, not for Menelaus but out of grief for his friend, and with armor from the gods, he kills Hector.

As this happens, the gods are also fighting amongst themselves about the fate of humanity. Achilles refuses to give the Trojans the body of their king, preventing them from burying it, until Hector's father sneaks into Achilles' tent and begs him for the body. He and Achilles share a meal and together mourn the people they lost during this war.

Hector's body is returned to Troy and buried. Although the story ends there, it also contains foreboding prophesies, including the fall of Troy and the inevitable death of Achilles. These events are never described in either the Odyssey or the Iliad, except vaguely in passing. It seems likely that ancient Greek readers were expected to already know what happens, probably because the Trojan War was a major moment in Greek history.

The Odyssey

As far as Homer was concerned, the story did not end there. The second great epic poem attributed to Homer is the Odyssey, which follows the character Odysseus on his journey home from the Trojan War. Some have described the Odyssey as the sequel of the Iliad, but it's more of a spin-off, like when a character from a popular sitcom gets his own show.

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Additional Activities

The Iliad and The Odyssey Writing Activity

The Iliad and The Odyssey Essay

For this activity, you will write an essay that explores the Greek gods' role in both The Iliad and The Odyssey. Below is the essay prompt:

How do the gods impact mortal lives in both of Homer's epic poems? Think about how the gods affect individual characters as well as the fate of humanity. Use specific details from each poem in your response.

Before writing, develop your ideas. One way to do this is to create a T-chart with The Iliad written on one side and The Odyssey written on the other. On each side, write specific examples of when gods or goddesses impacted individual characters or humanity in general. Include several examples on either side. Next, it's time to develop your thesis statement. This is where you sum up how gods intervene in the lives of mortals. Here is an example of a thesis statement: In both of Homer's epic poems, gods and other immortal beings often impact the lives of humans typically by helping their cause or by complicating their efforts. Now that you have a thesis statement, it is time to organize your ideas into an outline. Below is an example of an outline that you can use to help form your essay. Once you have completed your outline, use it as a guide as you write your first draft. Finally, proofread, edit, and revise your essay.

I. Introduction

  • Hook/Attention-Getter
  • Introduce the epic poems (Include the titles, the author, and a brief summary of each poem).
  • Thesis statement

II. Body Paragraphs

  • The Illiad
  1. Provide specific examples from The Iliad that display how gods impacted mortal life.
  2. Explain these examples thoroughly and use them to prove your point.
  • The Odyssey
  1. Provide specific examples from The Odyssey that show how gods impacted mortal life.
  2. Explain these examples thoroughly and use them to prove your point.

III. Conclusion

  • Summarize your main points.
  • Restate your thesis statement.
  • Create closure.

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