Back To CourseLSAT Test: Online Prep & Review
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Jennifer teaches critical thinking, legal writing and research, business law and justice studies courses. She has a law degree.
Your eyes quickly glazed over. You were just presented a complex legal fact pattern involving, in part, five parties, an argument over property rights, a potential trespass claim, a lost championship golf ball, and a claim to rights to sell the golf ball. The list went on and on. You knew you needed to analyze the fact pattern for all of the potential legal issues, but you had no idea where to begin. Thankfully, you had just learned about IRAC, which stands for issue, rule, application, and conclusion, and is a methodology of legal analysis that helps a writer break down, organize, and ultimately present a complex legal analysis.
As you settled in and began to break down the facts, the legal issues began to emerge from the muddy and complex fact pattern. You began to relax and started to enjoy the legal analysis. Your pencil was sharp and your ability to focus became sharper.
As a law student or reader of legal writing, you will often encounter very complex sets of fact patterns, court decisions, and legal analysis. In order to fully understand a particular case's facts and holding, it is often necessary to break down the case opinion and/or fact pattern into smaller component parts. The IRAC methodology is one way to do so.
An organized approach to legal analysis is useful for a variety of reasons. First, legal writing is often confusing. The IRAC method helps break down complex terminology, fact patterns, and legal analysis into easier to understand blocks of text.
The IRAC methodology is intended to provide a useful way to organize your thoughts. Absent instructions to the contrary, you should look to the IRAC methodology as a guideline that can be modified to best suit the task at hand. For example, you might at times consider including an additional section, if doing so would improve the clarity and organization of your shared analysis. You might also reorder and/or remove a section in order to present a clear and organized summary of a particular legal scenario. Look to IRAC as a guide for organizing your thoughts, and not a strict or rigid outline.
You also want to be careful to avoid over-simplifying the stated facts and analysis. For example, if a fact pattern is rich in detail and discusses the presence or involvement of multiple parties in a possible assault, battery, or trespass case, you will want to make sure to address all potential relationships. Focusing on only two parties, for example, could over-simplify both your presentation of the facts and the related legal analysis.
The IRAC methodology can also be used to summarize a legal opinion and prepare a case brief. A case brief is a concise summary of a formal court opinion. Case briefs can be used when doing legal research, preparing for a court appearance, studying for an exam, and/or explaining a case to others. The IRAC methodology provides an efficient way to outline a court opinion.
The I in IRAC stands for issue. In this section you describe in clear and concise writing, the legal issues or questions raised by the fact pattern. Remember to state the issue in question form. If your fact pattern presents more than one issue, you can prepare a separate IRAC analysis for each issue. To help identify the issue or issues, you might ask yourself: What is the legal question or questions that, when resolved or answered, dictates how the case will be resolved?
The R in IRAC stands for rule. In this section you explain, again clearly and concisely, the relevant legal rule or legal test that is involved. When preparing your analysis, remember to state the legal rule or legal test as a general legal principle. Don't incorporate any facts, such as party names, unique to the fact pattern under review.
The A in IRAC stands for application. In this most important section, you work to apply the relevant legal rule to the fact pattern that is being analyzed. It's important to take time to address all key facts and to clarify how the applicable legal rule impacts those facts. Remember not to simply restate facts. Do your best to explore all sides of the case and make sure to fully analyze how the legal rule interacts with the fact pattern.
The C in IRAC stands for conclusion. In this section, you share an answer to or sometimes a position on the legal issues and questions at issue. Here you want to provide a clear, concise, well-written answer to the fact pattern's issue. If your scenario presented multiple issues, remember that you also need to provide multiple conclusions.
The IRAC methodology can also be used to summarize or outline a legal opinion and prepare a case brief. A case brief is a concise outline of a formal court opinion. Case briefs can be used when doing legal research, preparing for a court appearance, studying for an exam, and/or explaining a case to others. When used to brief a court opinion, the acronym IFRAC is often used. The F in IFRAC stands for facts. In this section, you describe all key facts of the case and can also include a discussion of the procedural history, how lower courts addressed the case.
As you felt your muscles relax, you settled into the task at hand. You broke down your analysis of the fact pattern and used the IRAC methodology to help identify key elements of the case. Soon you had a concise and clear summary of the fact pattern that initially seemed so overwhelming.
When faced with a complex legal scenario, the task of analyzing a complex fact pattern can initially seem daunting. An organized approach to the analysis is essential for success. IRAC is a methodology of legal analysis that helps a writer break down, organize, and ultimately present a complex legal analysis. The I stands for issue, in which you describe, in clear and concise writing, the legal issues or questions raised by the fact pattern. The R stands for rule, in which you explain, again clearly and concisely, the relevant legal rule or legal test that is involved. The A stands for application, in which you work to apply the relevant legal rule to the fact pattern that is being analyzed. And, finally, the C stands for conclusion, in which you share an answer to, or sometimes a position on, the legal issues and questions at issue. The IRAC methodology can be used not only for your legal writing and when taking law school exams, but also for your daily case briefs for class, which are concise outlines of formal court opinions.
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Back To CourseLSAT Test: Online Prep & Review
10 chapters | 83 lessons