Copyright

The IRAC Method

An error occurred trying to load this video.

Try refreshing the page, or contact customer support.

Coming up next: Using the IRAC Method on the LSAT Writing Sample

You're on a roll. Keep up the good work!

Take Quiz Watch Next Lesson
 Replay
Your next lesson will play in 10 seconds
  • 0:00 Legal Analysis & the…
  • 1:24 IRAC'S Utility
  • 3:06 IRAC Components
  • 4:53 Case Briefs
  • 5:51 Lesson Summary
Add to Add to Add to

Want to watch this again later?

Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course.

Login or Sign up

Timeline
Autoplay
Autoplay
Create an account to start this course today
Try it free for 5 days!
Create An Account
Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Jennifer Schneider

Jennifer teaches critical thinking, legal writing and research, business law and justice studies courses. She has a law degree.

In this lesson, we study a type of legal analysis commonly referred to as the IRAC method. IRAC is an acronym that stands for: issue, rule, application, and conclusion, and using this method can help you in your legal writing.

Legal Analysis & the IRAC Method

Your eyes quickly glazed over. You were just presented a complex legal fact pattern involving, in part, five parties, an argument over property rights, a potential trespass claim, a lost championship golf ball, and a claim to rights to sell the golf ball. The list went on and on. You knew you needed to analyze the fact pattern for all of the potential legal issues, but you had no idea where to begin. Thankfully, you had just learned about IRAC, which stands for issue, rule, application, and conclusion, and is a methodology of legal analysis that helps a writer break down, organize, and ultimately present a complex legal analysis.

As you settled in and began to break down the facts, the legal issues began to emerge from the muddy and complex fact pattern. You began to relax and started to enjoy the legal analysis. Your pencil was sharp and your ability to focus became sharper.

As a law student or reader of legal writing, you will often encounter very complex sets of fact patterns, court decisions, and legal analysis. In order to fully understand a particular case's facts and holding, it is often necessary to break down the case opinion and/or fact pattern into smaller component parts. The IRAC methodology is one way to do so.

IRAC's Utility

An organized approach to legal analysis is useful for a variety of reasons. First, legal writing is often confusing. The IRAC method helps break down complex terminology, fact patterns, and legal analysis into easier to understand blocks of text.

The IRAC methodology is intended to provide a useful way to organize your thoughts. Absent instructions to the contrary, you should look to the IRAC methodology as a guideline that can be modified to best suit the task at hand. For example, you might at times consider including an additional section, if doing so would improve the clarity and organization of your shared analysis. You might also reorder and/or remove a section in order to present a clear and organized summary of a particular legal scenario. Look to IRAC as a guide for organizing your thoughts, and not a strict or rigid outline.

You also want to be careful to avoid over-simplifying the stated facts and analysis. For example, if a fact pattern is rich in detail and discusses the presence or involvement of multiple parties in a possible assault, battery, or trespass case, you will want to make sure to address all potential relationships. Focusing on only two parties, for example, could over-simplify both your presentation of the facts and the related legal analysis.

The IRAC methodology can also be used to summarize a legal opinion and prepare a case brief. A case brief is a concise summary of a formal court opinion. Case briefs can be used when doing legal research, preparing for a court appearance, studying for an exam, and/or explaining a case to others. The IRAC methodology provides an efficient way to outline a court opinion.

IRAC Components

Issue

The I in IRAC stands for issue. In this section you describe in clear and concise writing, the legal issues or questions raised by the fact pattern. Remember to state the issue in question form. If your fact pattern presents more than one issue, you can prepare a separate IRAC analysis for each issue. To help identify the issue or issues, you might ask yourself: What is the legal question or questions that, when resolved or answered, dictates how the case will be resolved?

Rule

The R in IRAC stands for rule. In this section you explain, again clearly and concisely, the relevant legal rule or legal test that is involved. When preparing your analysis, remember to state the legal rule or legal test as a general legal principle. Don't incorporate any facts, such as party names, unique to the fact pattern under review.

To unlock this lesson you must be a Study.com Member.
Create your account

Register for a free trial

Are you a student or a teacher?
I am a teacher

Unlock Your Education

See for yourself why 30 million people use Study.com

Become a Study.com member and start learning now.
Become a Member  Back

Earning College Credit

Did you know… We have over 95 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 2,000 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.

To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page

Transferring credit to the school of your choice

Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.

Create an account to start this course today
Try it free for 5 days!
Create An Account
Support