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The Kids for Cash Scandal in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Millicent Kelly

Millicent has been teaching at the university level since 2004. She holds a Bachelor's degree in Criminal Justice and a Master's degree in Human Resources.

The juvenile justice system handles criminal behavior among children, typically between the ages of 10 and 18. Gain insight into the negative aspects of this system by reviewing the history and explanation of what happened in the Kids for Cash scandal in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. Updated: 01/19/2022

A Brief History

Until just over a century ago, there was one justice system that dealt with both adults and minors. Around this time it was recognized that the justice system should be adapted for juveniles, and the juvenile justice system was born. In its beginnings, the emphasis of this justice system for minors was on rehabilitation and providing treatment to offenders so that they could re-enter society and become productive citizens. For this reason, and still today, the names of minors who enter the juvenile justice system are kept confidential. In turn, this allows them to eventually be returned to society without a label.

As the years went by, however, the states all developed their own juvenile justice systems and protocol associated with these systems. As crimes increased, the focus of the juvenile justice system moved from being primarily rehabilitative to more punitive in nature. Statutes were enacted that allowed juveniles to be prosecuted in adult criminal courts, especially for more heinous and sinister offenses. However, the American public believed in the fairness of the system and protecting the rights and liberties of those who entered it. Unfortunately this all changed in 2007, when someone reported a string of juvenile convictions in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania - convictions that simply did not make much sense.

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  • 0:04 A Brief History
  • 1:26 Luzerne County, Pennsylvania
  • 1:46 Kids for Cash Scandal
  • 2:21 What Happened?
  • 4:00 Lesson Summary
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Luzerne County, Pennsylvania

Luzerne County is located in the state of Pennsylvania and has just under 320,000 residents. It is one of the larger counties in Pennsylvania and attracts visitors for it's natural beauty and landscape. The unassuming nature of Luzerne County was shattered, however, when a scandal was uncovered in 2007.

Kids for Cash Scandal

Following a phone call alleging concerns about Luzerne County's juvenile justice system, an investigation was initiated in 2007. It was eventually discovered that for a five-year period beginning in 2003, the rights of juvenile offenders processed through the system had been severely violated. Known as the Kids for Cash Scandal the scheme involved two Luzerne County judges, Judge Mark Ciavarelli and Judge Michael Conahan. In addition, two private developers of juvenile detention facilities in Luzerne were also involved.

What Happened?

The Kids for Cash Scandal involved encouraging juveniles and their parents to waive procedural safeguards after entering the juvenile justice system under false pretense that their cases would be resolved more efficiently. Instead, juveniles who committed minor offenses were sentenced to ridiculously severe punishments that were to be served out in select juvenile detention facilities. The following offers some real case examples of the offenses and punishments that were handed out:

  • A teenage girl was sent to a detention facility for making fun of a school administrator on a social media page
  • A boy in his teens was accused of throwing a piece of food at his stepfather and was ordered to be detained for almost 20 days
  • A 14-year-old boy who intervened in an incident of bullying and defended the victim physically was sentenced to 90 days in a juvenile detention facility

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