The Nursing Diagnosis Statement According to NANDA

The Nursing Diagnosis Statement According to NANDA
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  • 0:04 What Is NANDA?
  • 0:40 What Is a Nursing Diagnosis?
  • 1:40 Types of Nursing Diagnoses
  • 4:10 Nursing vs. Medical Diagnosis
  • 6:39 Putting It All Together
  • 7:21 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Zona Taylor

Zona has taught Nursing and has a master's degree in Nursing Education and Maternal-Infant Nursing from University of Maryland Baltimore.

By the end of this lesson, you'll understand how a nursing diagnosis differs from a medical diagnosis, what a nursing diagnosis statement looks like, and where it fits into the nursing process. You'll know what NANDA means and where to find more information.

What Is NANDA?

NANDA International, originally known as the North American Nursing Diagnosis Association, was founded in 1982. The purpose of NANDA is to develop standardized terminology so nurses can have a common language to communicate the needs of their patients and more easily understand what needs to be done for patients.

NANDA members perform research, refining and setting criteria for each diagnosis and placing each in its proper place with the taxonomy of nursing diagnoses. Once the new terminology is finalized, NANDA distributes the new information to nurses worldwide.

What Is a Nursing Diagnosis?

Nurses learn the nursing process as part of their education. The nursing process starts with the nursing assessment, which involves collecting information from and about the patient. From that information, the nurse uses nursing judgment to identify what kind of response the patient is experiencing as a result of their health condition or other life process. The terms used to fashion this response into a usable summary statement of the problem is the nursing diagnosis.

The nursing diagnosis guides the next step of the nursing process: planning and goal setting. In the planning step, a nurse chooses appropriate interventions to personalize the care of the patient. These interventions are chosen specifically to move the patient toward the desired goals or outcomes. The next step is the actual implementation of the chosen interventions. The final step of the nursing process is evaluation or re-assessment to measure how well each planned intervention is working.

Types of Nursing Diagnoses

There are four types of nursing diagnoses. Let's consider them individually.

The first type is a problem-focused nursing diagnosis, which reflects 'a clinical judgment concerning an undesirable human response to health conditions or life processes that exists in a patient.' To make this diagnosis, certain elements must be present, including: defining characteristics (signs and/or symptoms) that can be grouped to form recognizable patterns and related factors that are somehow related to, contribute to, or led up to the identified problem.

Examples of problem-focused nursing diagnoses include:

  • Sleep deprivation related to pain
  • Impaired bed mobility related to left-sided paralysis
  • Decreased cardiac output due to myocardial infarction

The second type of nursing diagnosis is the health promotion diagnosis, which concerns the motivation and desire to increase well-being and to move closer to a person's own optimum health potential. These diagnoses use terms related to a patient's readiness for specific health behaviors. To make a health-promotion diagnosis, there must be defining characteristics that begin with the phrase, 'Expresses desire to enhance. . .'

Examples of health promotion nursing diagnoses include:

  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Risk-prone behavior
  • Readiness for enhanced immunization status

A third type of diagnosis is the risk nursing diagnosis. This examines the patient's vulnerability for developing an undesirable response to a health condition or life process. It requires identification of specific, personalized risk factors, such as smoking, advanced age, and obesity.

Examples of risk nursing diagnosis include:

  • Risk for infection
  • Risk for falls
  • Risk for SIDS

The final nursing diagnosis is the syndrome. This diagnosis identifies specific groups of diagnoses that occur together in a pattern and are best addressed together through similar nursing interventions. Making a syndrome diagnosis requires two or more nursing diagnoses that serve as defining characteristics and related factors, if they add clarity. However, related factors are not required.

An example of a syndrome diagnosis is a risk for decreased cardiac tissue perfusion, ineffective cerebral tissue perfusion, and ineffective peripheral tissue perfusion related to dysfunctional ventilatory weaning response

Nursing vs. Medical Diagnosis

To understand the difference between a medical diagnosis and a nursing diagnosis, let's first examine the purpose of a medical diagnosis. A medical diagnosis identifies the disorder, disease, or cause of symptoms. In contrast, a nursing diagnosis identifies the problems; in other words, the human responses that result from that disorder or disease.

For example, a medical diagnosis of stroke tells us about the cause of the symptoms. The nursing diagnosis might include impaired verbal communication, risk for falls, interrupted family processes, and powerlessness. The nursing diagnosis helps us understand the impact of that stroke on the patient and his family, as well as identifying which nursing interventions would best achieve patient-specific goals or outcomes.

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