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The Parallel Postulate: Definition & Examples

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  • 0:05 What Is the Parallel…
  • 0:48 The Parallel Postulate
  • 1:47 The Parallel Postulate-Example
  • 3:40 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Artem Cheprasov
In this lesson, you will learn about an important postulate in Euclidean geometry, called the Parallel Postulate. It sounds kind of hard, but this lesson explains it in simple terms and provides several examples of it as well.

What Is the Parallel Postulate?

Thousands of years ago, a Greek mathematician named Euclid laid out the foundations of plane geometry in five postulates, which are statements assumed to be true without proof. In today's lesson, we will cover his fifth postulate, called the parallel postulate, which states that if a straight line intersects two straight lines forming two interior angles on the same side that add up to less than 180 degrees, then the two lines, if extended indefinitely, will meet on that side on which the angles add up to less than 180 degrees.

Confused? You probably are, and that's okay. Let's simplify what that technical mess of a definition actually means. Suppose we have two lines, as shown here on screen.


Two Parallel Lines


We draw a third line that intersects the other two and label the interior angles alpha and beta, as shown here.


Alpha & Beta


Imagine extending the two lines indefinitely. In our figure, it can be clearly seen that they would eventually intersect.


Intersecting


What the parallel postulate claims is that these lines would intersect on the side of the angles alpha and beta only if the sum of these angles is less than 180 degrees. Note that the potential intersection occurs on the side of the angles alpha and beta. That is, we are talking about this side:


This Side


And not this side:


Not This Side


Also note that the postulate states that the intersection would only occur if the sum of alpha and beta is less than 180 degrees. If you're still confused, then why don't we take a closer look at the parallel postulate with some examples? Hands-on stuff never hurts, right?

The Parallel Postulate - Examples

We can have three general cases with respect to the parallel postulate, starting out with drawing two parallel lines labeled m and l and a transversal labeled n. We place the angles alpha and beta to the right of the transversal. In the resulting figure, it's easy to see that lines m and l would never cross each other.


Parallel M&L


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