Sharon has an Masters of Science in Mathematics and a Masters in Education
Social Clock Explained
Have you ever had that feeling that you were supposed to have accomplished something by a certain point in your life? All your friends are getting married, or having children, or securing jobs. No one has said you have to do these things, but there seems to be an unspoken pressure to do them anyway - like the clock is ticking. What is this?
This social pressure has been around as long as people have lived in societies. Your grandmother likely felt the need to get married before a certain age or she'd be considered an old maid. These examples illustrate a concept called the social clock, or a timetable determined by a culture or social structure, that specifies a proper time for certain events, like marriage, graduation, employment or social status.
Origins of the Social Clock
Social psychologist Bernice Neugarten proposed the idea of the social clock to help explain aging. Neugarten noticed that events in society happened in a predictable manner. Think about your culture. What is considered the best age for marriage? In most western societies, the age is around 25 to 35. However in many cultures, the expectation is as young as 12.
Neugarten suggested that all societies have a social clock, a conscious or unconscious consensus that dictates when events should occur. If the events do not happen in this time frame, people feel stress for not living up to their family's or society's expectations. They judge themselves harshly when they see others achieving these milestones on time.
The culture we live in largely determines the landmarks we are expected to reach and the time frame we're expected to reach them in. For example, the time frame of education in America is different than in other parts of the world, and it's due to the way our education system is set up. A child in America is expected to graduate around the age of 18 after completing high school. In Germany, on the other hand, children are divided up into different academic sections around 4th grade, resulting in a less stringent determination of graduation age. Some children go to a technical education program and graduate as early as 16; others shoot into a more advanced program and don't graduate until after they turn 18.
Even within a culture, different social clock traditions exist. Children in middle and upper class societies in America are typically expected to attend college at around age 18; children in poverty have less of an expectation to attend college and are typically expected to begin working for a living after graduation from high school.
Impact of Landmark Events
Reaching a goal by a prescribed time is also seen as a sign of maturity. Neugarten studied aging and researched how people develop. She theorized the social clock acted as a mechanism to guide and shape how people advanced or evolved as they aged. Reaching a landmark at the culturally appropriate time indicated the person was emotionally mature and capable. Think of how graduation or employment is thought of in the United States. Those who do not graduate or get a job at certain times are often thought to be immature. People can be ostracized or viewed as an outcast because of their inability or reluctance to conform to the social clock.
A culture's social clock can change over time as well. For example, in the 1950s in America, there was an expectation that most people would married by the time they reached their 20's. Since that time, the 'limit' for this acceptable marriageable age has increased, and many people postpone marriage until years later. Also, at one time education was complete after 5th grade; over time, the expectation increased to 8th grade, and now children go to school and graduate after 12th grade.
The social clock is a concept that explores the timetable determined by a culture or social structure, that specifies a proper time for certain events, like marriage, graduation, employment or social status. The concept originated with psychologist Bernice Neugarten in 1965. She suggested that all societies have a social clock, a conscious or unconscious consensus that dictates when these events should occur.
The culture we live in largely determines the landmarks we are expected to reach, and the time frame we're expected to reach them in. For example, an acceptable age for marriage is much different in western countries than it is for other countries. Even within a culture, different social clock traditions exist. Upper- to middle-class youths are expected to attend college after high school, while children in the lower class often begin working for a living at this point. A culture's social clock can change over time as well. In America alone, the acceptable age for marriage has changed from the early 20's; now, many people postpone marriage until much later.
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