What is the Virginia Plan?
The Virginia Plan was created by James Madison but presented to the Constitutional Convention by Edmund Randolph, the governor of Virginia, in 1787. This was a proposal for a new form of government and called for the number of votes each state received in Congress to be based on population rather than each state receiving one vote.
The purpose of the plan was to protect the large states' interests in the new government, which would be stronger federally than under the Articles of Confederation. The Articles of Confederation was the first form of government and had weak federal control; the states had all of the power. The Virginia Plan would change this by creating an entirely new form of government rather than amending the Articles of Confederation. The Virginia Plan was countered with the New Jersey Plan, which called for one vote per state regardless of population, since the smaller states were worried that they would not be equal if the representation of the legislative branch was based on population.
Supporters of the Plan
Supporters of the Virginia Plan included James Madison, George Washington, Edmund Randolph, and the states of Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. James Madison is known as the Father of the Constitution because he helped frame the Bill of Rights and much of the Constitution. Madison, along with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay, wrote the Federalist Papers, which were persuasive documents asking for a strong federal government.
Structure of the Virginia Plan
The Virginia Plan had 15 resolutions and was based on some of the ideas of French political theorist Montesquieu. It proposed a separation of powers that would be divided among three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. The plan also included provisions for allowing new states to enter the United States of America. Supporters of the Virginia Plan wanted to have separation of powers as well as checks and balances in order to eliminate the abuse of power and tyranny like they had experienced in Great Britain, as well as to create a strong national government.
As noted, under the Virginia Plan, the government would have three branches, and each would be able to check and balance the other branches. The legislative branch was more powerful, since it would pick the people who would compose the executive and judicial branches. The legislative branch would be bicameral (two houses), and both houses would be based on population. The House of Representatives would be elected for 3-year terms by the people, and the Senate would be elected for 7-year terms by state legislatures. The more populated the state, the more representatives it would have in Congress, which would make larger states more powerful. The legislative branch could monitor trade, declare laws unconstitutional, collect taxes, and oversee the armed forces to help enforce laws.
The executive branch would be elected by the legislature and may be removed, but the delegates were not sure if the executive should be a single person or group. The delegates were nervous about having a strong executive branch, fearing this would lead to tyranny. Today, we consider the President and his or her cabinet to be the executive branch.
The judicial branch would be appointed by the legislature and would have life tenure under the condition of good behavior - you know them today as the Supreme Court. The judicial branch would also have the power to veto legislation.
Voting and Results
The debates over the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan lasted from May 29th to June 14th, 1787, when a vote was taken. The result of the vote was 7-3 in favor of the Virginia Plan. Massachusetts, Connecticut, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia voted for the Virginia Plan, while New York, New Jersey, and Delaware voted for the New Jersey Plan, an alternate that was also on the table. The delegates from Maryland were split, so the state's vote was null. In the end, the Great Compromise (also known as the Connecticut Compromise), which was a combination of both plans, was reached.
The Virginia Plan was presented to the Constitutional Convention in 1787. The plan was a proposal for a new form of government and called for the number of votes each state received in Congress to be based on population, rather than each state receiving one vote.
The plan proposed a separation of powers that would be divided among three branches: legislative, executive, and judicial. Eventually, the legislative branch became the Senate and House of Representatives, the executive branch became the President and his or her cabinet, and the judicial branch became the Supreme Court.
The plan also included provisions for allowing new states to enter the United States of America. Supporters of the Virginia Plan wanted to have separation of powers as well as checks and balances in order to eliminate the abuse of power and tyranny like they had experienced in Great Britain, as well as to create a strong national government.
Learn about the Virginia Plan, then test your readiness to:
- Summarize the Virginia Plan and its purpose
- Name some of the plan's supporters
- Outline the branches of the Virginia Plan
- Discuss the results of the vote on the plan
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Prompts About the Virginia Plan:
Essay Prompt 1:
Write an essay of at least three to four paragraphs that describes the Virginia Plan and why it was created. Make sure to explain the way the Virginia Plan was designed to counter the problems of the Articles of Confederation.
Example: The Articles of Confederation was a weak government, and the Virginia Plan sought to upend the Articles to produce a stronger federal government.
Essay Prompt 2:
In at least two to three paragraphs, write an essay that explains how and why the Great Compromise came about.
Example: The Great Compromise blended the Virginia Plan and its alternative, the New Jersey Plan.
Make a list of at least ten supporters (people and states) of the Virginia Plan. You can refer to the lesson, but try to recall as many people and states from memory as you can.
Example: John Jay.
Graphic Organizer Prompt 1:
Make a chart, poster, or some other type of graphic organizer that depicts the components of the Virginia Plan (i.e., the three branches of government) and briefly describes their functions.
Example: The legislative branch would be bicameral.
Graphic Organizer Prompt 2:
Create a chart, poster, or some other type of graphic organizer that lists which states voted for the Virginia Plan and which states voted for the New Jersey Plan.
Example: You could have a chart with one column for the Virginia Plan and another column for the New Jersey Plan.
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