The Whole Language Approach to Reading

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  • 0:00 What Is Whole Language?
  • 0:47 Teaching Language Arts 101
  • 2:29 Roots of the Whole…
  • 4:01 WLA in the Classroom
  • 5:21 Lesson Summary
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Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Sharon Linde

Sharon has a Masters of Science in Mathematics

The whole language approach is a term we hear batted around in the educational field, but does anyone really know what it means? This lesson will define the whole language approach and look at the practice.

What Is Whole Language?

In education, reading and writing instruction doesn't always look the same. There are many different philosophies and approaches to teaching children language arts. The whole language approach to reading is a philosophy that stresses the importance of children thinking about their thinking, or being metacognitive. The whole language approach (WLA) focuses on children making sense of skills used in reading and writing, as opposed to just memorizing letter sounds and symbols. When did the WLA approach become popular, and why use it? Let's take a peek into an instructional methods class at a university that's learning about the WLA.

Teaching Language Arts 101

In today's class, the professor, Dr. Tee, is teaching two approaches to teaching language arts: whole language and phonics.

Phonics

Many people learn to read using a traditional method that relies on the memorization of letters and the sounds these letters make. This is called phonics. Teachers who use phonics to teach reading and writing typically follow a systematic approach that doesn't have context to real text, meaning words are learned apart from books or other written print. Instead, children learn letters, usually beginning with A and ending with Z, along with the sounds associated with each letter. They then put letter sounds together to blend sounds. You have likely been told to sound a word out as a young reader. Your teacher or parent meant to use your understanding of phonics to decode a word.

Whole Language

The whole language approach to reading instruction focuses on children making important connections between reading and real life. Instead of phonics instruction, the WLA teaches children to memorize words. Teachers rely heavily on a sight word vocabulary, an increasingly complex list of words that children memorize, both in and out of context. The WLA uses simple readers to give children practice reading their sight words, believing fluency will be built and strengthened with real-life reading practice. It stresses the importance of children learning and making sense of their emerging reading and language skills in relation to other words, not by letter-sound use.

Roots of the Whole Language Approach

Dr. Tee goes on to explain that the WLA doesn't have one solid source. It evolved as several different combinations of thought. However, it is considered a constructivist approach to teaching. Constructivism is an educational philosophy that stresses student creation of meaning from experiences. In other words, constructivists believe children will naturally construct their own understanding of learning, including reading and writing, from their involvement and interaction with it. Constructivists don't think children learn best by breaking learning down into small parts, as phonics does. They believe each student brings individual experience to the classroom to help make sense of their learning.

This cognitive approach to learning is based on Jean Piaget's theory of making connections. Piaget was an early educational psychologist who taught a few important aspects used in the WLA:

  1. Children adapt to their changing world by making sense of their experiences.
  2. These experiences are assimilated, or taken in as new information and fitted with what is already known.
  3. Experiences can also be accommodated. When children accommodate, they create a new space for the information they're learning.

Dr. Tee ends today's lesson with a reminder that neither approach is right or wrong. Educators, parents and policy makers need to explore each of them and conduct research on both before forming opinions.

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