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Math for Kids23 chapters | 326 lessons

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Lesson Transcript

Instructor:
*Kadoria Burgess*

I have a Bachelor's degree in Elementary Education and Spanish. I have taught for 5 years in bilingual classrooms of various elementary grade levels.

Some people say that doing the same thing over and over again will not get you results, but this lesson will teach you about mathematical patterns and show you how to prove those people wrong.

'The itsy-bitsy spider went up the water spout. Down came the rain and washed the spider out. Out came the sun and dried up all the rain, and the itsy-bitsy spider went up the spout again.' The itsy-bitsy spider song is an example of a pattern. A **pattern** is a series or sequence that repeats. The itsy-bitsy spider climbed the water spout, and then did the same thing again after the weather cleared up.

You can observe patterns - things like colors, shapes, actions, or other sequences that repeat - everywhere. Think about words or melodies in songs, lines and curves on buildings, or even in the grocery store where boxes and jars of various items are lined up.

But, one of the most common places to find patterns is in math. **Math patterns** are sequences that repeat according to a rule or rules. In math, a **rule** is a set way to calculate or solve a problem.

One common type of math pattern is a number pattern. **Number patterns** are a sequence of numbers that are ordered based upon a rule. There are many ways to figure out the rule, such as:

- Use a number line to see the distance between the numbers or what they have in common
- Look at the last one or two digits or the first digit to see if they repeat in a special manner
- Look at the numbers and see if there is a pattern, like taking each number and multiplying by 3 for instance
- Think about common number patterns, like counting by 2s, 5s, or 10s, and/or
- Find the difference between the numbers

It's important to remember that a number pattern can have more than one solution and a combination of rules. If this is the case, try to think of the simplest rule possible, like adding 1 or multiplying by 2 with a difference of 3.

Another common type of math pattern is a shape pattern. **Shape patterns** are exactly what they sound like - a sequence of shapes that are arranged based upon a rule. Instead of being identified by the types of shapes in the pattern, shape patterns are identified by using letters like A, B, or C. Each shape gets its own letter, but when the shape repeats, you must use the same letter again for that shape.

For example, the shape pattern in the picture starts with a triangle, so you will give each triangle the letter A. Next, there is a square which will get the letter B. Then, there's a circle, so it will get the letter C. Afterwards, we see another square, so you will give it the letter B, and the pattern repeats again starting with the triangle. This would be called an ABCB pattern, based on how the shapes repeat.

Let's review by going back over all our terms for understanding patterns in math. A **pattern** is a series or sequence that repeats. **Math patterns** are sequences that repeat based on a rule, and a **rule** is a set way to calculate or solve a problem. There are two main types of math patterns: **number patterns**, or sequences of numbers arranged according to a rule or rules, and **shape patterns**, which are labeled by using letters and the way that they repeat.

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