We all learn new things every day, but how is 'learning' defined in educational psychology? This lesson covers the definition of learning, different types of learning, and discusses learning styles.
When you were a little kid, did you learn how to ride a bike? Did you learn how to do long division, or learn the capital cities of different countries? How about learning how to drive a car when you were a little older, or learning how to do laundry?
We use the term 'learning' all the time in everyday life. But within the field of educational psychology, the term learning is actually a specific term. Different people use different words to define learning within educational psychology, but in general, we're talking about a step-by-step process in which an individual experiences permanent, lasting changes in knowledge, behaviors, or ways of processing the world. Let's go through a few examples of different types of learning you might hear about in the field of educational psychology.
Types of Learning
One way that we all learn, even from infancy, is by observation. In educational psychology, we define observational learning as learning not by our own experiences, but by watching someone else behave and noting the consequences of that behavior. For example, we all learn how to speak as very young children by simply watching and listening to the people around us. We learn how to do simple motions (such as walking) by watching all of the adults around us walk. Sometimes, observational learning is so natural that we don't even realize that it's happening.
Russian scientist Pavlov studied learning through conditioning
Another type of learning identified by educational psychology is cognitive learning, which is learning through active and constructive thought processes, such as practice or using our memory. One example might be that you were taught how to tell time by looking at a clock. Someone taught you the meaning of the big hand and little hand, and you might have had to practice telling time when you were first learning it. This process of learning was entirely inside your mind, and didn't involve any physical motions or behaviors. It was all cognitive, meaning an internal thought process.
The next type of learning that educational psychologists study is learning through conditioning. We've identified two types of conditioning. The first type, classical conditioning, is learning to associate a particular thing in our environment with a prediction of what will happen next. The most famous example of classical conditioning is research by the Russian scientist Pavlov, who taught his dogs that every time he rang a bell, he would give them food. Eventually, the dogs started to drool with anticipation every time they heard the bell ring. So, classical conditioning is when we react to an environmental cue that tells us what's going to happen next.
The second type of conditioning is called operant conditioning. Here, we learn that a particular behavior is usually followed by a reward or punishment. We usually choose to keep doing behaviors that are followed by rewards and avoid behaviors that are followed by punishments. For example, you might learn that a particular teacher responds positively to you asking a lot of questions in class, so you are encouraged to keep doing that. If another teacher frowns and says mean things to you when you ask questions, that social punishment teaches you not to ask questions in that particular class.
Finally, educational psychology discusses the differences in learning as an individual versus learning in a group, which is called cooperative learning. There are several different specific classroom techniques designed to enhance cooperative learning, such as giving students group projects. Some students will prefer individual learning, whereas others will enjoy the social aspects of cooperative learning.
Effective Learning Strategies
So far, we've defined learning and talked about different types of learning. But educational psychology also studies how any type of learning can be the most effective for different kinds of students.
Dogs associating bell sounds with food is an example of classical conditioning
A popular theory in the field of education suggests that different students might have different learning styles, meaning that individual students can more effectively learn via particular methodologies. To explain a bit more, think about how you prefer to learn something. If you need to learn how to put together a large object with lots of little pieces, do you want to watch someone else do it in a demonstration? Or do you want to just jump right in and start putting pieces together? Or do you want to read well written instructions in a book?
Some people seem to prefer learning things visually - we call these people visual learners. While some prefer to listen to instructions - we call these people auditory learners. And finally, some people prefer to actually touch and feel what they are doing - we call these people tactile or kinesthetic learners. To be the most effective, a teacher should explore what kinds of learners he or she has in a classroom and try to match the style of teaching to the style of learning for those students.
In summary, learning is a step-by-step process in which an individual experiences permanent, lasting changes in knowledge, behaviors, or ways of processing the world. We covered several different types of learning, including observational, cognitive, classical conditioning, operant conditioning, individual learning, and cooperative learning. Finally, we talked about different learning styles, including visual, auditory, and kinesthetic. What kind of learning do you like best?
After watching this lesson, you should be able to define learning as well as identify and describe the different types of learning and learning styles.