Common Core State Standards in Ohio

Instructor: Eric Campos

Eric has tutored in English, writing, history, and other subjects.

Ohio's learning standards are modeled after the Common Core Standards that are being used by most of the other 50 states. Below is an overview of some these standards and how they enhance the educational process.

How do the Standards Work?

Ohio's Common Core standards can be loosely defined as a set of guidelines that pinpoints core skills and abilities students must attain at certain levels of their academic career. These standards help track students' progress and grasp of the material, making sure they gain knowledge that will help them progress into more complex subjects.

The standards are driven to achieve college readiness for all students. Ohio standards focus heavily on developing high-level proficiency in various subjects to ensure that students can function successfully in both school and future career settings. This article will focus on Ohio's English language arts (ELA), mathematics, and science standards.

English Language Arts (ELA)

The ELA standards focus on building the literacy skills that will prepare students to thrive in a world of information and media. The standards cover the core of language application: reading, writing, listening, speaking, and language (language structure). The goal is for the students to hone key skills in each of these sub-categories, enabling students to understand and apply new information efficiently. For context, let's examine a few examples of the actual writing standards for the writing category:

Writing Standards

Kindergarten Apply the use of images, dictation, and writing to create text that explains a topic and/or opinion to another person.
1st Grade Write a paper that expresses an original opinion and the reason why.
2nd Grade Develop writing that utilizes specific details and facts to introduce an idea and deliver a closing statement.
3rd Grade Write an opinion piece that incorporates reasoning behind views.
4th Grade Write an essay that supports a specific view and support with key details and reasoning.
5th Grade Present an opinion in a paper that clearly outlines ideas that is logically structured to support the author's focus.
6th Grade Create a thesis statement to clarify a stance and then write to prove the thesis.
7th Grade Apply appropriate phrasing to connect ideas and evidence for optimal effect within the text.
8th Grade Clearly differentiate claims and counter-claims within the writing to support a thesis.
9th-10th Grade Display and distinguish alternate claims while simultaneously illustrating how these different views are related to the subject using evidence and alternate reasoning.
11-12th Grade Develop an original claim or counter-argument and use evidence to corroborate the stance in an organized manor.

Here, we can observe how basic writing abilities expand from simply writing an opinion, to acknowledging and understanding other opinions. From there, standards are also established for students to then combine these traits with the use of supporting evidence. As a whole, the ELA standards aim to help students achieve independence through gaining content knowledge and the proficiency to use evidence in support of views. Below are a few relative resources to help your students grasp and achieve the ELA standards:


The mathematics standards also emphasize real-world application. Like the ELA standards, the mathematics standards build upon one another. Students must be able to perform mathematical operations fluidly in earlier stages in order to expand these skills into more complex mathematical principles.

The mathematics standards are categorized into 2 strands of general skill sets. The first strand focuses on reasoning and proof, problem-solving, communication, connections, representation. The second strand focuses more on the proficiency of mathematics skills: productive disposition, strategic competence, adaptive reasoning, procedural fluency, and conceptual understanding. From grades K-8 the standards are listed by individual grade. In high school, the standards become more directly associated with conceptual categories such as geometry and algebra. Below are a few of the standards:

Kindergarten Count to 100 from any number besides 1.
1st Grade Demonstrate proficiency in subtracting and adding within 20
Show knowledge of working around a quantity of 10.
2nd Grade Identify whether a group of objects, up to 20, has even or odd member numbers.
3rd Grade Successfully discover an unknown whole number in a division and/or multiplication equation involving three whole numbers.
4th Grade Complete word problems that using division and multiplication; apply multiplicative comparison to solve and confirm answers.
5th Grade Apply and understand the use of parentheses in numerical expressions.
6th Grade Be able to understand the use and principles of ratios.
7th Grade Understand how proportional relationships work in order to complete multistep percent and ratios problems accurately.
8th Grade Assess and confirm the accuracy of an informal proof of the Pythagorean Theorem, as well as its converse.
Geometry Using the properties of a shape, classify the hierarchy of two-dimensional figures.
Algebra Analyze an expression's structure and produce accurate ways to rewrite it.

Developing these core math skills certainly do take a lot of time and careful study, both in and outside of the classroom. Below are a few resources that break down the math subjects in a self-paced environment to help your students grasp the material:


The science standards in grades K-8 cover a wide variety of scientific topics including technology, engineering, and scientific inquiry. High school science stresses the individual sciences including biology and physical science. Students must grasp key concepts within specific scientific disciplines. The goal is to make every student science literate by graduation. Here are a few of the standards:

K- 4tH Grade Clearly communicate one's observations and explanations of scientific investigations.
5th-8th Grade Skillfully interpret data to gain understanding.
9th-12th Grade Apply critical thinking to develop and revise explanations and models; use logic and evidence to justify reasoning.

Again, provides vivid lessons in science from elementary to advanced studies to guide your students along the way:

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