Fractions Lesson Plan

Instructor: Sharon Linde

Sharon has a Masters of Science in Mathematics

Introducing your students to fractions? Use this lesson plan to explain and define different types of fractions, like equivalent and improper. See examples of each. Apply skills with a fun activity.

Learning Objectives

After this lesson, students will be able to:

  • identify types of fractions
  • compare and contrast different types of fractions
  • represent fractions on a number line


  • 45 minutes to 1 hour


  • Math notebooks
  • Notecard pairs with equivalent fraction sets (i.e. one pair could be 1/2 and 2/4)
  • Class size number line (created using paper or written on board)
  • Number line task cards with different fractions written on them

Key Vocabulary

  • fraction
  • numerator
  • denominator
  • proper fraction
  • improper fraction
  • like fraction
  • unlike fraction
  • equivalent fraction
  • mixed number

Curriculum Standards

  • CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.1

Understand a fraction 1/b as the quantity formed by 1 part when a whole is partitioned into b equal parts; understand a fraction a/b as the quantity formed by a parts of size 1/b.

  • CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.3.b

Recognize and generate simple equivalent fractions, e.g., 1/2 = 2/4, 4/6 = 2/3. Explain why the fractions are equivalent, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

  • CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.3.d

Compare two fractions with the same numerator or the same denominator by reasoning about their size. Recognize that comparisons are valid only when the two fractions refer to the same whole. Record the results of comparisons with the symbols >, =, or <, and justify the conclusions, e.g., by using a visual fraction model.

  • CCSS.Math.Content.3.NF.A.2.a

Represent a fraction 1/b on a number line diagram by defining the interval from 0 to 1 as the whole and partitioning it into b equal parts. Recognize that each part has size 1/b and that the endpoint of the part based at 0 locates the number 1/b on the number line.


  • Instruct students to create an entry in their math notebooks labeled 'Fractions.' Ask students to draw a number line and label 0-10. Ask:
    • What number comes between 1 and 2? 5 and 6? Discuss answers and show students using number line.
  • Tell students they will be learning about fractions. Share prior knowledge.
  • Show our lesson What is a Fraction? - Definition and Types.
  • Pause the video at the following places and discuss:
    • 1:23 - Define numerator, denominator, and fraction. Check for clarity and understanding.
    • 2:51 - Define proper and improper fraction. Give examples. Ask 'What makes a fraction improper?' Write examples in notebooks.
    • 4:31 - Define like and unlike fractions. Give examples and write in notebooks.
    • 5:21 - Define mixed numbers. Give examples and write in notebooks.
  • Discuss:
    • When do we use fractions in real life?
    • How are improper fractions and mixed numbers the same?
  • Write several examples of differing types of fractions on the board and ask students to identify.


  • Give each student a fraction card and ask them to find the student with the equivalent fraction.
  • Tell students they will work with their partner to represent fractions on a number line.
  • Give each partner pairing a fraction task card and instruct them to find their place on the number line. For example, if a pairing received the task card 1 2/3 they would stand between the 1 and 2; if the number is 1/3 they would stand between 0 and 1.
  • Check as a class and discuss. Have students recreate in their notebooks.
  • Repeat with varying number lines and fractions. For example, you could use a number line from 0-1.


  • For homework, ask students to identify something in their home they could divide into fractions, such as a pizza or crayons, and divide. Have them draw their fraction or take a picture to share.
  • Leave the number line blank and have students create their own number line from least to greatest. Determine the range together.

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