Labeling Theory and Crime: Stigma & Retrospective and Projective Labeling


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A vigilante on a television show is viewed as a hero by the community, while law enforcement sees him as a criminal. This illustrates _____.

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1. After hearing that her neighbor Jim had been arrested for spying, Susan tells her sister that she remembers Jim acting like he had something to hide. Susan's action is an example of _____.

2. Marco repeatedly violates a social norm that leads his colleagues to make assumptions about him and label him. This is an example of _____.

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About This Quiz & Worksheet

The quiz and worksheet will check your knowledge of theories, stigmatization and social constructions related to deviance.

Quiz & Worksheet Goals

Use these assessment tools to assess your knowledge of:

  • What the TV show Arrow illustrates about vigilantes
  • Types of deviance
  • Travis Hirschi's theory on deviant behavior

Skills Practiced

  • Information recall - access the knowledge you've gained regarding the theory that says deviance is socially constructed and based on reaction instead of action
  • Knowledge application - use your knowledge to answer questions about deviance
  • Critical thinking - apply relevant concepts to examine information about crime in a different light

Additional Learning

To learn more, study the lesson titled Labeling Theory and Crime: Stigma & Retrospective and Projective Labeling. This lesson goes over the following objectives:

  • Details primary deviance
  • Defines secondary deviance
  • Explains Hirschi's theory
  • Covers ways people interpret others' past and futures regarding deviance