About This Chapter
19th Century Political & Societal Developments - Chapter Summary
Increase what you know about the political and societal developments of the 19th century with this chapter. You can access these lessons to learn more about the leaders of various political movements, as well as the events leading up to important changes in several nations. Complete this chapter when you're ready to study:
- The Congress of Vienna and the revolutions of 1848
- Utopianism, socialism, communism and nationalism
- Labor unions
- The unifications of Italy and Germany
- Japan's westernization
This chapter was created by historical experts to provide you with the most important information about this time period. The lessons are kept short and focused to help you absorb the facts about the developments of the 19th century.
1. Congress of Vienna: Members, Objectives & Results
In this lesson, we will study the Congress of Vienna, which established a balance of power in Europe after Napoleon's defeat. We will meet the Congress' members, examine its objectives, and take a look at its results.
2. Revolutions of 1848 & the Spring of Nations: Major Revolutions, Causes & Collapse
This lesson will examine the Revolutions of 1848 that swept across Europe. We will look at the causes of these revolutions and highlight the key themes and events surrounding the 'Spring of Nations.'
3. Utopianism: Definition & Communities
In this lesson we will examine utopianism. We will define the term and understand its nuances, and we will identify various prominent utopian societies throughout history. Following the lesson, you'll be able to test your understanding of the content with a quiz.
4. Socialism: Definition & Leaders
This lesson defines and explains the 19th century political ideology socialism. In doing this, it will highlight the roles of the Industrial Revolution and the socialist experiments of Robert Owen and Charles Fourier.
5. Communism: Definition & Examples
In this lesson, we'll learn the meaning of communism while briefly comparing it to capitalism. We'll then discuss different examples of communism. Finally, we'll discuss the significance of communism in the context of the Cold War.
6. What Is a Labor Union? - Definition & History
Labor unions are important organizations. In this lesson, you will learn what a labor union is and the history of labor unions in the United States. You will have an opportunity to reinforce your knowledge with a short quiz.
7. Nationalism Grows in Europe: Timeline, Events & Impact
In this lesson, we will study the growth of nationalism that took place during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic age. We will begin by defining nationalism and then explore how it developed in these critical eras.
8. The Unification of Italy: Summary, Timeline & Leaders
In this lesson, we explore the piecemeal unification of Italy which took place in the 19th century. Created in part by the brilliant statesmen Camillo Benso di Cavour, Italy as we know it did not fully take shape until 1870.
9. The Unification of Germany: Summary, Timeline & Events
In this lesson, we explore the unification of Germany in the 1860s and 1870s, largely accomplished through the statecraft of the Chancellor of Prussia and later Germany, Otto von Bismarck.
10. The Westernization of Japan During the Meiji Era
In this lesson, we explore the opening of Japan to Western trade by Commodore Matthew Perry in the mid-18th century. We'll then look at the ensuing westernization of the country in the Meiji period.
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