About This Chapter
Accountability in School Counseling - Chapter Summary
We created this chapter to build your understanding of accountability in school counseling. You can access these lessons to study different forms of assessments and evaluations. Information is also provided regarding how assessments should be judged. Complete this chapter when you're ready to study:
- How to create a school counseling program
- David Wechsler, accountability and testing in education
- Standardization, practicality, reliability and validity in assessments
- Informal, formal, paper-pencil, performance, formative and summative assessments
- How to summarize results of assessments
- Ways to use standard deviation, bell curves, mean, median and mode
- Advantages and disadvantages of standardized tests and different forms of scoring
These lessons are supported by school counseling experts who are available to answer any questions you have about this subject. Each lesson is accompanied by an interactive quiz that allows you to track what you're learning about these assessments.
1. Developing a School Counseling Program
School counseling programs provide powerful resources for students and families. This lesson will discuss the necessary steps for developing a school counseling program. The lesson will end with a short quiz to test what you have learned.
2. Accountability & Standardized Testing in Education in the 21st Century
What's the deal with assessments and No Child Left Behind? In this lesson, we'll examine statewide standardized assessments, teacher accountability, and the No Child Left Behind Act, including what critics say about them.
3. David Wechsler on Intelligence, Overview
In this lesson, you will learn about the psychologist David Wechsler who introduced the theory that intelligence is a multidimensional global capacity that should be measured as an age-appropriate performance skill.
4. Forms of Assessment: Informal, Formal, Paper-Pencil & Performance Assessments
Educators often need to assess students' learning and achievement. There are multiple forms of assessments that educators use to not only gain knowledge about a student's level of understanding but also to guide the direction of future lessons and course curriculum. This lesson will differentiate between formal and informal assessments and paper-pencil versus performance-based assessments used in educational settings.
5. Standardized Assessments & Formative vs. Summative Evaluations
If you have ever attended a public school or college you have been subjected to a form of standardized assessment. These assessments serve multiple purposes and provide valuable information regarding one's abilities, understanding and potential. This lesson will introduce you to the types of standardized assessments commonly used in schools and discuss two other types of assessments: formative and summative.
6. Qualities of Good Assessments: Standardization, Practicality, Reliability & Validity
Have you ever been in the middle of an assessment and thought, 'This question is unfair!' or 'This exam covers material I have never seen before!' If so, the assessment probably did not possess the qualities that make an assessment effective. This lesson will introduce you to the qualities of good assessments: reliability, standardization, validity, and practicality.
7. Validity in Assessments: Content, Construct & Predictive Validity
Ensuring that an assessment measures what it is intended to measure is a critical component in education. Assessment results are used to predict future achievement and current knowledge. This lesson will define the term validity and differentiate between content, construct, and predictive validity.
8. The Reliability Coefficient and the Reliability of Assessments
How are test scores affected by day-to-day changes of a student? Do different people rate students' performances the same? These questions are addressed through the understanding of reliability. This lesson will define reliability, explain how reliability is measured, and explore methods to enhance reliability of assessments in the classroom.
9. Performance Assessments: Product vs. Process
Playing a musical instrument, creating a spreadsheet and performing in a play are all activities that many of us engage in on a regular basis. These activities are also examples of ways teachers assess a student's mastery of a subject in educational settings. This lesson will define performance-based assessments and discuss the various uses of performance assessments in the classroom.
10. Summarizing Assessment Results: Understanding Basic Statistics of Score Distribution
Summarizing test results is a critical component of the assessment process. In order for results to be used effectively, they must be summarized in a way that allows educators to compare the achievement of one student to others. This lesson will describe the first step in summarizing results: understanding the basic statistics of score distribution.
11. Summarizing Assessment Results: Comparing Test Scores to a Larger Population
Assessment results can yield valuable information about the individual test-taker and the larger population of test-takers. This lesson will describe how to compare test scores to a larger population by explaining standard score, stanines, z-score, percentile rank and cumulative percentage.
12. Using Standard Deviation and Bell Curves for Assessment
When a teacher gives an exam in class, how does she decide if the test scores were good or bad? This lesson focuses on classroom assessment, specifically how to analyze the variability of scores within a given group of students. We'll discuss both standard deviation and bell curves.
13. Norm- vs. Criterion-Referenced Scoring: Advantages & Disadvantages
Assessment results allow educators to make important decisions about students' knowledge, abilities and future educational potential. There are multiple ways to summarize and interpret assessment results. This lesson will discuss ways to summarize norm-referenced assessments and criterion-referenced assessments.
14. Using Mean, Median, and Mode for Assessment
How does a teacher decide what is a good exam score and what is a bad one? This lesson focuses on classroom assessment, but instead of different types of assessment (such as essay versus true/false questions), we'll discuss statistical methods for summarizing scores on any form of testing. Specifically, this lesson covers the statistical tools known as the mean, median and mode.
15. Standardized Tests in Education: Advantages and Disadvantages
Standardized tests are used frequently in educational settings. This lesson will help you understand the advantages and disadvantages of these tests and also explore factors that impact standardized test performance.
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Other chapters within the Praxis Professional School Counselor (5421): Practice & Study Guide course
- The History & Role of School Counselors
- Understanding Human Growth & Development
- Theories of Identity Formation & Social Development
- Ethics & School Counseling
- Professional Development for School Counselors
- School and System Governance
- Legal Issues in School Counseling
- Guidance & Counseling Strategies for Schools
- Group Counseling
- Teaching Students About Career Development
- Instructional & Behavioral Management Strategies in Class
- Crisis Intervention for School Counselors
- Student Diversity & Issues in School Counseling
- Consultation in School Counseling
- Interventions & Accommodations in School Counseling
- Management in School Counseling
- Assessment Issues in School Counseling
- School Counseling & Student Outcomes
- Praxis Professional School Counselor Flashcards