About This Chapter
Who's it for?
This unit of our AP Chemistry Homeschool course will benefit any student who is trying to learn about reactions in chemistry. There is no faster or easier way to learn about basic chemical reactions. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who require an efficient, self-paced course of study to learn about the pH scale, buffers, weak bases, neutralization and oxidation numbers.
- Homeschool parents looking to spend less time preparing lessons and more time teaching.
- Homeschool parents who need a chemistry curriculum that appeals to multiple learning types (visual or auditory).
- Gifted students and students with learning differences.
How it works:
- Students watch a short, fun video lesson that covers a specific unit topic.
- Students and parents can refer to the video transcripts to reinforce learning.
- Short quizzes and an Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions unit exam confirm understanding or identify any topics that require review.
Acids, Bases and Chemical Reactions Unit Objectives:
- Learn the difference between decomposition and simple synthesis reactions.
- Define and find uses for bases and acids according to the Arrhenius Theory.
- Identify the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis acids and bases.
- Understand the neutralization process as it pertains to acid-base reactions.
- Learn how to calculate concentration levels and explain autoionization.
- Understand the scope and purpose of the pH scale.
- Examine the basic or acidic nature of salt.
- Review the meanings of buffers, weak acids and weak bases.
- Define base and acid anhydrides.
- Gain an understanding of coordinated compound bonds.
- Be able to predict precipitates.
- Learn to assign oxidation numbers.
- Discover how to balance redox equations and recognize reducing and oxidizing agents.
- Review the activity series process in order to foresee the outcomes of single replacement reactions.
- Learn the parts of electrochemical cells.
- Examine anode and cathode half-cell reactions.
- See how to write and balance combustion reactions.
1. Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions
Learn how to write, identify and predict the products of simple synthesis and decomposition reactions. This includes the composition of reactions with oxygen, of two metals, and of metals with nonmetals, as well as the decomposition of metal carbonates, metal chlorates and metal hydroxides.
2. The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of Arrhenius acids and bases, discover some of their chemical properties and learn some examples. You will also learn about the difference between strong and weak Arrhenius acids and bases.
3. The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases
Learn the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions of an acid and base. Discover how these theories differ from each other and from the Arrhenius theory of an acid and base. Learn how to identify an acid in terms of proton donation and a base as a proton acceptor, and explain what a conjugate acid or base is.
4. Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions
From this lesson, you will understand the neutralization process between acids and bases. Learn how a hydroxide ion from a base reacts with a hydronium ion from an acid to neutralize each other and form water. Discover what conjugate acids and bases are and what the definition of amphoteric is.
5. Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water
Learn the meaning of auto-ionization of water, sometimes called self-ionization, where water acts as a proton donor and acceptor to form both hydronium and hydroxide ions. Learn what the auto-ionization constant is and how to use it to determine the concentration of either hydroxide or hydronium ions in a solution when given the other value.
6. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
7. Acidic & Basic Salt Solutions: Explanation & Examples
In this video lesson, you will learn how to tell if a salt solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. You will find out how to recognize the effect of individual ions in solution and how they can change the pH. A short quiz will test your knowledge.
8. Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers
This lesson covers both strong and weak acids and bases, using human blood as an example for the discussion. Other concepts discussed included conjugate acids and bases, the acidity constant, and buffer systems within the blood.
9. Acid & Base Anhydrides: Definition & Examples
In this video lesson, you will learn the definition and the types of anhydrides that form acids and bases in water. You will also discover where you can commonly find anhydrides and why they are important. A short quiz will test your knowledge.
10. Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds
Discover what a coordinated compound is. Understand how bonding occurs in coordinated compounds and some of the possible shapes coordinated compounds can be. Learn the uses in nature and industry for coordinated compounds.
11. Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations
Learn what a precipitate is and predict when it will form in an aqueous chemical reaction, usually a double-replacement reaction. Learn what an ionic equation is, how it differs from a net ionic equation and how to write a net ionic equation.
12. Redox (Oxidation-Reduction) Reactions: Definitions and Examples
This short video will explain oxidation-reduction reactions, or redox reactions for short. The focus is on how electrons are transferred during redox reactions. Learn some neat mnemonic devices to help you remember when an atom is oxidizing or reducing.
13. Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula
Learn the importance of oxidation in chemical reactions. Discover the rules for assigning oxidation numbers in both covalent compounds and ionic compounds. Learn how to assign the oxidation number for each element in a chemical formula.
14. Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
Learn how to identify an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent and how the loss or gain of electrons applies to each one. Learn the relationship between an oxidized or reduced substance and the oxidizing or reducing agent associated with it. Discover what steps to take to balance a redox reaction.
15. The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions
Discover what a single replacement reaction is and how to identify it. Learn what chemical activity is, how that applies to an activity series table and how to predict the product of a single replacement reaction by referring to the activity series.
16. Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry
Learn to identify the parts of and be able to describe an electrochemical cell, including the electrolyte, electrodes, anodes, and cathodes. Learn how to make a homemade lemon battery and how to diagram an electrochemical cell that will light a light bulb.
17. Cathode and Anode Half-Cell Reactions
Learn how to write electrode half-reactions for cathodes and anodes. Discover how to calculate cell voltage potential when given a table of standard electrode potentials. Learn how to prevent corrosion using redox concepts and how to protect metal by cathodic protection.
18. Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions
Discover what a combustion reaction is as well as what reactants are needed and what products are produced. Learn to write and balance a combustion reaction. Through the concepts of bond energies, learn how to explain why combustion reactions are largely exothermic.
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Other chapters within the AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum course
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Properties of Matter - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Atomic Structure - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- The Periodic Table of Elements - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Nuclear Chemistry - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Bonding - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Gases - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Solutions - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Stoichiometry & Chemical Equations - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Equilibrium - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Kinetics - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Thermodynamics - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Organic Chemistry - AP Chemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Portions of the AP Chemistry Exam: Homeschool Curriculum