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Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in an Acids, Bases and Reactions in Chemistry unit of a standard college physical science course. Topics covered include:
- Neutralization and acid-base reactions
- Dissociation constant and autoionization of water
- Weak acids, weak bases and buffers
- Coordination chemistry
- Precipitation reactions
1. Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions
Learn how to write, identify and predict the products of simple synthesis and decomposition reactions. This includes the composition of reactions with oxygen, of two metals, and of metals with nonmetals, as well as the decomposition of metal carbonates, metal chlorates and metal hydroxides.
2. The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of Arrhenius acids and bases, discover some of their chemical properties and learn some examples. You will also learn about the difference between strong and weak Arrhenius acids and bases.
3. The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases
Learn the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions of an acid and base. Discover how these theories differ from each other and from the Arrhenius theory of an acid and base. Learn how to identify an acid in terms of proton donation and a base as a proton acceptor, and explain what a conjugate acid or base is.
4. Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions
From this lesson, you will understand the neutralization process between acids and bases. Learn how a hydroxide ion from a base reacts with a hydronium ion from an acid to neutralize each other and form water. Discover what conjugate acids and bases are and what the definition of amphoteric is.
5. Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water
Learn the meaning of auto-ionization of water, sometimes called self-ionization, where water acts as a proton donor and acceptor to form both hydronium and hydroxide ions. Learn what the auto-ionization constant is and how to use it to determine the concentration of either hydroxide or hydronium ions in a solution when given the other value.
6. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
7. Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers
This lesson covers both strong and weak acids and bases, using human blood as an example for the discussion. Other concepts discussed included conjugate acids and bases, the acidity constant, and buffer systems within the blood.
8. Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds
Discover what a coordinated compound is. Understand how bonding occurs in coordinated compounds and some of the possible shapes coordinated compounds can be. Learn the uses in nature and industry for coordinated compounds.
9. Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations
Learn what a precipitate is and predict when it will form in an aqueous chemical reaction, usually a double-replacement reaction. Learn what an ionic equation is, how it differs from a net ionic equation and how to write a net ionic equation.
10. Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula
Learn the importance of oxidation in chemical reactions. Discover the rules for assigning oxidation numbers in both covalent compounds and ionic compounds. Learn how to assign the oxidation number for each element in a chemical formula.
11. Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
Learn how to identify an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent and how the loss or gain of electrons applies to each one. Learn the relationship between an oxidized or reduced substance and the oxidizing or reducing agent associated with it. Discover what steps to take to balance a redox reaction.
12. The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions
Discover what a single replacement reaction is and how to identify it. Learn what chemical activity is, how that applies to an activity series table and how to predict the product of a single replacement reaction by referring to the activity series.
13. Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry
Learn to identify the parts of and be able to describe an electrochemical cell, including the electrolyte, electrodes, anodes, and cathodes. Learn how to make a homemade lemon battery and how to diagram an electrochemical cell that will light a light bulb.
14. Cathode and Anode Half-Cell Reactions
Learn how to write electrode half-reactions for cathodes and anodes. Discover how to calculate cell voltage potential when given a table of standard electrode potentials. Learn how to prevent corrosion using redox concepts and how to protect metal by cathodic protection.
15. Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions
Discover what a combustion reaction is as well as what reactants are needed and what products are produced. Learn to write and balance a combustion reaction. Through the concepts of bond energies, learn how to explain why combustion reactions are largely exothermic.
16. Acylation: Mechanism & Reaction
Did you know the acylation reaction plays an important role in how our body functions at the cellular level? In this lesson you'll learn about the step-by-step process needed for an acylation reaction as well as the mechanism used to carry out this reaction.
17. What is Acetic Acid? - Uses, Structure & Formula
The sour and pungent smell of vinegar is because of acetic acid. Acetic acid is most well known because of its presence in vinegar, but it has many other uses. In this lesson, we will learn more about the structure, uses, and formula of acetic acid.
18. Calculating Isoelectric Point: Definition & Formula
In this lesson, you will learn about isoelectric points. We will review pH and pKa, explore the definition of isoelectric points with use of examples, and then describe how to calculate the value knowing pKa values.
19. Hydrogen Chloride vs. Hydrochloric Acid
In chemistry, a substance can have the same chemical formula, but with completely different properties. In this lesson, we will look at two compounds with the chemical formula HCl, and discover why they are so different.
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