About This Chapter
Acids, Bases and Reactions in Chemistry - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Acids and bases are chemical solutions that give or receive hydrogen ions, and in this chapter, you'll learn about their unique properties and how they interact. At the beginning of the lesson, the instructor will discuss the scientific laws that can help you identify these solutions, as well as determine which are weak or strong. You'll also learn what happens during chemical reactions, such as those that occur between metals, nonmetals or oxygen.
The neutralization and autoionization processes will be covered, including how ions from acids and bases combine to form water. You'll also have the chance to revisit the pH scale, and work with redox or oxidation-reduction reactions. In addition to the aforementioned topics, this chapter will provide you with the following information about acids and bases:
- Coordination chemistry and compounds with metals
- Precipitation reactions and what happens when a liquid turns into a solid
- The oxidation process, whereby chemical substances combine with oxygen
- Single-displacement or oxidation-reduction reactions
- Electrochemical cells and how chemical reactions transmit electrical energy to devices and mechanisms
- Anodes, cathodes and the flow of current
- Combustion reactions and fuel
- Catalysts and the rates of chemical reactions.
|Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions||Forecast and identify the products of basic synthesis and decomposition reactions.|
|The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases||Define acid and base according to the Arrhenius theory. Discuss strong acids and bases, as well as the common uses of specific acids.|
|The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases||Understand the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions of acids and bases.|
|Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions||Describe the neutralization process. Write an acid/base reaction, and label the conjugate acids and bases. Identify amphoteric compounds.|
|Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water||Discuss the autoionization of water, and calculate the concentration of hydroxide or hydronium when provided with the other value.|
|The pH Scale: Calculating the pH or pOH of a Solution||Calculate the pH or pOH of an acid or base, according to the required values. Explain the pH scale.|
|Weak Acids, Weak Bases and Buffers||Define the following terms: buffer, weak acid, weak base, strong acid and strong base|
|Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds||Describe how bonding occurs in coordinated compounds.|
|Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations||Calculate the formation of a precipitate, and write net ionic equations.|
|Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula||Understand the rules for assigning oxidation numbers. Give the oxidation number for the elements in a chemical equation.|
|Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents||Use the half-reaction method to balance redox equations. Identify oxidizing and reducing agents.|
|The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions||Predict the products of single displacement reactions using the activity series.|
|Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry||Name the parts of an electrochemical cell, and explain their functions.|
|Cathode and Anode Half-Cell Reactions||Write electrode half reactions for cathodes and anodes. Use a given table of standard electrode potentials to calculate cell voltage potential. Discuss how redox concepts can be used to explain the prevention of corrosion.|
|Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions||Write and balance a combustion reaction for a fuel. Apply the concept of bond energies to explain why combustion reactions are largely exothermic.|
|What is a Catalyst?||Define and describe the function of a catalyst during a chemical reaction.|
1. Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions
Learn how to write, identify and predict the products of simple synthesis and decomposition reactions. This includes the composition of reactions with oxygen, of two metals, and of metals with nonmetals, as well as the decomposition of metal carbonates, metal chlorates and metal hydroxides.
2. The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of Arrhenius acids and bases, discover some of their chemical properties and learn some examples. You will also learn about the difference between strong and weak Arrhenius acids and bases.
3. The Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis Definition of Acids and Bases
Learn the Bronsted-Lowry and Lewis definitions of an acid and base. Discover how these theories differ from each other and from the Arrhenius theory of an acid and base. Learn how to identify an acid in terms of proton donation and a base as a proton acceptor, and explain what a conjugate acid or base is.
4. Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions
From this lesson, you will understand the neutralization process between acids and bases. Learn how a hydroxide ion from a base reacts with a hydronium ion from an acid to neutralize each other and form water. Discover what conjugate acids and bases are and what the definition of amphoteric is.
5. Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water
Learn the meaning of auto-ionization of water, sometimes called self-ionization, where water acts as a proton donor and acceptor to form both hydronium and hydroxide ions. Learn what the auto-ionization constant is and how to use it to determine the concentration of either hydroxide or hydronium ions in a solution when given the other value.
6. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
7. Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers
This lesson covers both strong and weak acids and bases, using human blood as an example for the discussion. Other concepts discussed included conjugate acids and bases, the acidity constant, and buffer systems within the blood.
8. Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds
Discover what a coordinated compound is. Understand how bonding occurs in coordinated compounds and some of the possible shapes coordinated compounds can be. Learn the uses in nature and industry for coordinated compounds.
9. Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations
Learn what a precipitate is and predict when it will form in an aqueous chemical reaction, usually a double-replacement reaction. Learn what an ionic equation is, how it differs from a net ionic equation and how to write a net ionic equation.
10. Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula
Learn the importance of oxidation in chemical reactions. Discover the rules for assigning oxidation numbers in both covalent compounds and ionic compounds. Learn how to assign the oxidation number for each element in a chemical formula.
11. Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
Learn how to identify an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent and how the loss or gain of electrons applies to each one. Learn the relationship between an oxidized or reduced substance and the oxidizing or reducing agent associated with it. Discover what steps to take to balance a redox reaction.
12. The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions
Discover what a single replacement reaction is and how to identify it. Learn what chemical activity is, how that applies to an activity series table and how to predict the product of a single replacement reaction by referring to the activity series.
13. Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry
Learn to identify the parts of and be able to describe an electrochemical cell, including the electrolyte, electrodes, anodes, and cathodes. Learn how to make a homemade lemon battery and how to diagram an electrochemical cell that will light a light bulb.
14. Cathode and Anode Half-Cell Reactions
Learn how to write electrode half-reactions for cathodes and anodes. Discover how to calculate cell voltage potential when given a table of standard electrode potentials. Learn how to prevent corrosion using redox concepts and how to protect metal by cathodic protection.
15. Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions
Discover what a combustion reaction is as well as what reactants are needed and what products are produced. Learn to write and balance a combustion reaction. Through the concepts of bond energies, learn how to explain why combustion reactions are largely exothermic.
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