About This Chapter
Acids and Bases - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
In this chapter, you'll find out how scientific theories and measurements are used to identify acids and bases, chemical solutions that either donate or accept hydrogen ions. You'll also learn what makes some acids and bases strong or weak, as well as how they interact with a neutral substance like water. In addition, the instructor will show you how to write and balance chemical equations related to acids and bases. Among other topics, this chapter is designed to familiarize you with the following:
- The Arrhenius definition of acids and bases
- Acid-base reactions and the neutralization process
- The pH scale and how it is used to identify acids and bases
- Chemical reactions, including those associated with combustion, oxidation and precipitation
|Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions||Write, identify and predict the products of simple synthesis and decomposition reactions.|
|The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases||Use the Arrhenius theory to define acid and base, and list the strong acids and bases. Identify common uses of specific acids.|
|Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions||Describe the neutralization process. Write an acid/base reaction, labeling the conjugate acids and bases. Identify amphoteric compounds.|
|Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water||Explain the autoionization of water, and calculate the concentration of hydroxide or hydronium when given the other value.|
|The pH Scale: Calculating the pH or pOH of a Solution||Calculate the pH or pOH of an acid or base when given the required values. Describe the pH scale.|
|Acids and Base Salts||Discuss how a salt solution can be acidic or basic, depending on the identities of the anion and cation in the salt.|
|Weak Acids, Weak Bases and Buffers||Understand buffers and what makes acids and bases weak or strong.|
|Anhydrides: Acids and Basics||Define and discuss acid and basic anhydrides.|
|Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds||Understand how bonding occurs in coordination compounds.|
|Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations||Predict the formation of a precipitate, and write net ionic equations.|
|Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula||Know the rules for assigning oxidation numbers; provide the oxidation number for each element in a chemical formula.|
|Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents||Balance a redox equation using the half-reaction method. Identify oxidizing agents and reducing agents.|
|The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions||Use the activity series to predict the products of single displacement reactions.|
|Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry||Identify the parts of an electrochemical cell, and describe their functions.|
|Cathode and Anode Half-Cell Reactions||Write electrode half reactions for cathodes and anodes. Calculate cell voltage potential using a given table of standard electrode potentials. Explain how to prevent corrosion using redox theories.|
|Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions||Write and balance a combustion reaction for a given fuel. Use the concept of bond energies to explain why combustion reactions are largely exothermic.|
1. Decomposition and Synthesis Reactions
Learn how to write, identify and predict the products of simple synthesis and decomposition reactions. This includes the composition of reactions with oxygen, of two metals, and of metals with nonmetals, as well as the decomposition of metal carbonates, metal chlorates and metal hydroxides.
2. The Arrhenius Definition of Acids and Bases
In this lesson, you will learn the definition of Arrhenius acids and bases, discover some of their chemical properties and learn some examples. You will also learn about the difference between strong and weak Arrhenius acids and bases.
3. Neutralization and Acid-Base Reactions
From this lesson, you will understand the neutralization process between acids and bases. Learn how a hydroxide ion from a base reacts with a hydronium ion from an acid to neutralize each other and form water. Discover what conjugate acids and bases are and what the definition of amphoteric is.
4. Dissociation Constant and Autoionization of Water
Learn the meaning of auto-ionization of water, sometimes called self-ionization, where water acts as a proton donor and acceptor to form both hydronium and hydroxide ions. Learn what the auto-ionization constant is and how to use it to determine the concentration of either hydroxide or hydronium ions in a solution when given the other value.
5. The pH Scale: Calculating the pH of a Solution
Learn the history of the pH scale, how to describe it and why it is used by scientists. Discover how to calculate the pH of an acid or base solutions given either the hydroxide ion concentration or the hydronium ion concentration. Learn how to start with the pH and calculate the hydroxide and hydronium ion concentrations.
6. Acidic & Basic Salt Solutions: Explanation & Examples
In this video lesson, you will learn how to tell if a salt solution is acidic, basic, or neutral. You will find out how to recognize the effect of individual ions in solution and how they can change the pH. A short quiz will test your knowledge.
7. Weak Acids, Weak Bases, and Buffers
This lesson covers both strong and weak acids and bases, using human blood as an example for the discussion. Other concepts discussed included conjugate acids and bases, the acidity constant, and buffer systems within the blood.
8. Acid & Base Anhydrides: Definition & Examples
In this video lesson, you will learn the definition and the types of anhydrides that form acids and bases in water. You will also discover where you can commonly find anhydrides and why they are important. A short quiz will test your knowledge.
9. Coordination Chemistry: Bonding in Coordinated Compounds
Discover what a coordinated compound is. Understand how bonding occurs in coordinated compounds and some of the possible shapes coordinated compounds can be. Learn the uses in nature and industry for coordinated compounds.
10. Precipitation Reactions: Predicting Precipitates and Net Ionic Equations
Learn what a precipitate is and predict when it will form in an aqueous chemical reaction, usually a double-replacement reaction. Learn what an ionic equation is, how it differs from a net ionic equation and how to write a net ionic equation.
11. Assigning Oxidation Numbers to Elements in a Chemical Formula
Learn the importance of oxidation in chemical reactions. Discover the rules for assigning oxidation numbers in both covalent compounds and ionic compounds. Learn how to assign the oxidation number for each element in a chemical formula.
12. Balancing Redox Reactions and Identifying Oxidizing and Reducing Agents
Learn how to identify an oxidizing agent and a reducing agent and how the loss or gain of electrons applies to each one. Learn the relationship between an oxidized or reduced substance and the oxidizing or reducing agent associated with it. Discover what steps to take to balance a redox reaction.
13. The Activity Series: Predicting Products of Single Displacement Reactions
Discover what a single replacement reaction is and how to identify it. Learn what chemical activity is, how that applies to an activity series table and how to predict the product of a single replacement reaction by referring to the activity series.
14. Electrochemical Cells and Electrochemistry
Learn to identify the parts of and be able to describe an electrochemical cell, including the electrolyte, electrodes, anodes, and cathodes. Learn how to make a homemade lemon battery and how to diagram an electrochemical cell that will light a light bulb.
15. Cathode and Anode Half-Cell Reactions
Learn how to write electrode half-reactions for cathodes and anodes. Discover how to calculate cell voltage potential when given a table of standard electrode potentials. Learn how to prevent corrosion using redox concepts and how to protect metal by cathodic protection.
16. Writing and Balancing Combustion Reactions
Discover what a combustion reaction is as well as what reactants are needed and what products are produced. Learn to write and balance a combustion reaction. Through the concepts of bond energies, learn how to explain why combustion reactions are largely exothermic.
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Other chapters within the Chemistry: High School course
- Introduction to Chemistry
- Measurement and Problem Solving
- Experimental Laboratory Chemistry
- What Is Matter?
- Understanding Atomic Structure
- The Periodic Table of Elements
- The Representative Elements of the Periodic Table
- Nuclear Chemistry
- Bonding for High School Chemistry
- Phase Changes for Liquids and Solids
- Gases in Chemistry
- Solutions in Chemistry
- Stoichiometry and Chemical Equations
- Chemistry Kinetics
- Thermodynamics in Chemistry
- Organic Chemistry Basics
- Teaching Resources for High School Chemistry