# Ch 42: ACT Science Reasoning: Fundamentals of Science

### About This Chapter

## ACT Science Reasoning: Fundamentals of Science - Chapter Summary

Completing this review will help you prepare for the science reasoning portion of the ACT. For this section, you do not need to know very much actual science, but you will need to interpret data in figures and graphs. This chapter includes fundamental concepts necessary as a basic framework for college-level science reasoning:

- Science vocabulary and concepts
- The scientific method
- Experimental design
- Reading scientific charts and graphs
- Designing scientific experiments

The lesson pertaining to designing scientific experiments contains an example of Avery and Griffith's experiment as a clear model. Practice problems are included for interpreting charts and graphs, in addition to problems for practice in interpreting tables of scientific data. Get organized to prove your fundamental science skills on the ACT science test.

### ACT Science Objectives

This section of the ACT checks for scientific understanding, analyzing abilities and reasoning skills, while using research data, graphs and hypotheses. The 35-minute test has 40 multiple-choice questions that follow sets of scientific information.

Scientific information on the test appears in various formats:

- Conflicting viewpoints
- Research summaries
- Data representation

The questions that follow the information require that you use it to generalize, make predictions and draw conclusions. The combination of all 40 questions provides the basis of the total score reported for the ACT science test.

### 1. Science Vocabulary & Concepts: Study Skills & Word Parts

Learning science presents a unique set of challenges for students. In this lesson, learn the tricks of the trade as we discuss scientific vocabulary and other science study skills.

### 2. The Scientific Method: Steps, Terms & Examples

The scientific method is more than just hypotheses and experiments. In this lesson, we'll explore the themes and variations that make up the world of science.

### 3. Experimental Design in Science: Definition & Method

What are the requirements of a scientific experiment? How do scientists turn hypotheses into theories and laws? Learn the answers to these questions and more in this lesson on the design of scientific experiments.

### 4. Variables & Controls in a Science Experiment

After watching this video, you will be able to explain how science experiments are conducted; what variables, controlled variables, and controls are: and why these things are important. A short quiz will follow.

### 5. Design a Scientific Experiment: Example of Avery and Griffith's Experiments

What are the requirements of a scientific experiment? How do scientists design their investigations? In this lesson, we'll use the work of Avery and Griffith to explore the process of experimental design.

### 6. Evaluating Data: Precision, Accuracy & Error

The data you present as a scientist needs to be as accurate, precise and error-free as possible. In this lesson, we'll discuss what each of these terms means, as well as how error is introduced into measurements and other data collection.

### 7. How to Read Scientific Graphs & Charts

How do scientists summarize their findings with visual aids? In this lesson, explore the different types of tables, charts and graphs that scientists use. Learn to read these effectively as a preview to your science studies.

### 8. Interpreting Graphs and Charts of Scientific Data: Practice Problems

Do charts and graphs make problem-solving difficult? Complex problems with visual representations can drain your brain during a test. In this lesson, learn three simple rules for solving problems with charts and graphs. We'll try them out as we walk through two sample problems.

### 9. Interpreting Tables of Scientific Data: Practice Problems

Complex table problems getting you down? Multi-question, situational problems don't have to be a drag on your testing performance. Learn how to apply three simple rules as we walk through two table problems together.

### 10. Interpolation in Statistics: Definition, Formula & Example

Interpolation is a useful mathematical and statistical tool used to estimate values between two points. In this lesson, you will learn about this tool, its formula and how to use it.

### 11. Extrapolation in Statistics: Definition, Formula & Example

Extrapolation is a useful statistical tool used to estimate values that go beyond a set of given data or observations. In this lesson, you will learn how to estimate or predict values using this tool.

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### Other Chapters

Other chapters within the ACT Prep: Practice & Study Guide course

- ACT: About the Test
- ACT English: Section Overview
- ACT English: Punctuation
- ACT English: Grammar and Usage
- ACT English: Sentence Structure
- ACT English: Production of Writing
- ACT English: Style
- ACT Writing: Overview
- ACT Writing: Essay Skills
- ACT Reading: Overview
- ACT Reading: Question Types
- ACT Reading: Understanding Reading Passages
- ACT Reading: Analyzing Reading Passages
- ACT Reading: Word Meanings and Choice
- ACT Reading: Practice
- ACT Math: Overview
- ACT Math: Number & Quantity
- ACT Math: Pre-Algebra
- ACT Math: Algebraic Expressions
- ACT Math: Radicals
- ACT Math: Linear Equations
- ACT Math: Functions
- ACT Math: Types of Functions
- ACT Math: Absolute Value
- ACT Math: Matrices
- ACT Math: Inequalities
- ACT Math: Probability, Combinations & Factorial
- ACT Math: Data and Statistics
- ACT Math: Exponents
- ACT Math: Polynomials and Quadratics
- ACT Math: Rational Equations and Expressions
- ACT Math: Sequences
- ACT Math: Complex Numbers
- ACT Math: Exponentials and Logarithms
- ACT Math: Coordinate Geometry
- ACT Math: Conic Sections
- ACT Math: Triangles
- ACT Math: Plane Geometry
- ACT Math: Lines and Angles
- ACT Math: Trigonometry
- ACT Science Reasoning: Overview
- ACT Science Reasoning: Evaluating Models
- ACT Prep Flashcards