About This Chapter
Adaptation in Biological Evolution - Chapter Summary
The lessons in this chapter cover adaptation in biological evolution for your review. Short videos feature subjects such as survival of the fittest and Herbert Spencer, plus examples of natural selection and adaptation. Once you complete this chapter, you should be ready to:
- Describe the theory associated with natural selection and adaptation
- Detail genotype-environment interaction and phenotypic plasticity
- Identify the broad-sense heritability equation
- Explain environmental changes and adaptation in organisms
- Differentiate between individual accommodation and gradual adaptation
- Discuss the different causes of microevolution
- Outline allopatric and sympatric speciation
- Explore the causes of species extinction
Review these topics at your leisure on any mobile device or computer 24 hours a day. We've included self-assessment tools that include lesson quizzes and a chapter test, so you'll have an effective way to check your comprehension. Each of our videos is up to ten minutes long and easy to navigate using the video tabs feature if you'd rather not watch the whole thing.
1. Survival of The Fittest & Herbert Spencer: Definition & Examples
What is Social Darwinism? How is it different than evolution? What does Social Darwinism have in common with Darwin's theories of evolution? Where did Survival of the Fittest come from, and what does it mean?
2. Natural Selection & Adaptation: Definition, Theory & Examples
How does natural selection help shape the amazing types of animals we witness around us? In this lesson, we'll explore adaptations and what they can tell us about a species' past evolution.
3. Genotype-Environment Interaction and Phenotypic Plasticity
It's not just what's in your genes. In this lesson, we'll begin to explore how some phenotypes are influenced by the interaction between a genotype and the environment. Further, some organisms rely on phenotypic plasticity to change in response to the environmental changes.
4. The Broad-Sense Heritability Equation
Heritability describes how a phenotype is affected by genetic variation. Who you are is more than just your DNA - it's somewhat influenced by things, like what you eat and where you live. In this lesson, find out how geneticists account for variations using the broad-sense heritability equation.
5. Environmental Changes & Adaptation in Organisms
In this lesson, we will discuss what happens when an organism is forced to deal with environmental changes. You will learn what adaptation is and how organisms benefit from it.
6. Individual Accommodation vs. Gradual Adaptation
Sometimes we encounter new environmental conditions that take some getting used to. As individuals, our bodies may quickly and temporarily accommodate for the short-term, but populations may adapt gradually for the long-term.
7. Causes of Microevolution: Natural Selection, Gene Flow & Genetic Drift
Environments are dynamic, which causes populations to be as well. In this lesson, you'll learn about microevolution, as well as the mechanisms behind it that cause changes in allele frequencies within populations.
8. Speciation: Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation
Discover the definition of a species and learn more about how species split. Find out common terms related to the splitting of species and study what role polyploidy plays in the development of a species.
9. The Causes of Species Extinction
What do dinosaurs, passenger pigeons, and a species of Australian rat all have in common? They have all gone extinct. This lesson will examine the causes of species extinction from mass extinctions in the past to human-caused extinctions today.
Earning College Credit
Did you know… We have over 200 college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level.
To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page
Transferring credit to the school of your choice
Not sure what college you want to attend yet? Study.com has thousands of articles about every imaginable degree, area of study and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you.
Other chapters within the CSET Science Subtest II Life Sciences (217): Practice & Study Guide course
- Principles of Cell Structure & Function
- The Organization & Function of Multicellular Organisms
- The Cell Cycle, Mitosis & Meoisis
- Matter & Energy Flow in Organisms
- Interdependent Relationships in Ecosystems
- Cycles of Matter & Energy Transfer in Ecosystems
- Biodiversity & Sustainability
- DNA & Gene Expression
- Genetics & Inheritance
- Genetic Variation & Engineering
- Overview of Biological Evolution on Earth
- The Role of Natural Selection in Biological Evolution
- CSET Science Subtest 2 Life Sciences Flashcards