Ch 39: General Science: DNA Transcription & Translation Process

About This Chapter

The AEPA General Science exam is a step in the certification process for Arizona educators. Use this chapter to review the role of DNA, mRNA and tRNA in protein synthesis, the central dogma of biology and gene expression as you prepare for the exam.

AEPA General Science: DNA Transcription & Translation Process - Chapter Summary

Watch these lesson videos to review the processes of protein synthesis and gene expression. These lessons are taught by expert instructors who explain the roles of DNA, mRNA and tRNA as they relate to DNA translation as well as the functions of ribosomes and peptide bonds. Once you've finished these lessons, you should be better prepared for questions on the certification exam that focus on:

  • Central dogma of biology
  • Transcription of mRNA from DNA
  • Transcriptional repression and induction
  • Operon and transcription in prokaryotic cells
  • RNA processing in eukaryotic cells
  • tRNA and codon recognition
  • Amino acids from RNA
  • Functions of ribosomes and peptide bonds
  • Initiation, elongation and termination steps of translating mRNA to proteins

Take advantage of the versatility of these lessons by watching them on your mobile devices. When you develop questions about the material, ask our instructors for clarification so that you can improve your understanding of the material presented. Complete the lesson quizzes; doing so could help you find topics you should review further.

AEPA General Science: DNA Transcription & Translation Process Objectives

The three-hour-long AEPA General Science exam is used as a basis for the certification of science teachers in the state of Arizona. When individuals take this computer-based certification exam, they are asked to complete 150 multiple-choice questions. One-fourth of the material covered in this exam falls under the domain of Life Science, and may include some questions about DNA replication and protein synthesis. Complete the lessons of this chapter improve your understanding of these processes and the functions of mRNA, tRNA, ribosomes and peptide bonds.

10 Lessons in Chapter 39: General Science: DNA Transcription & Translation Process
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

1. Protein Synthesis in the Cell and the Central Dogma

Learn the story of the central dogma and how it relates to protein synthesis. We'll use a simple analogy to explore the roles of transcription and translation in building protein from the DNA code. In this lesson, we'll also introduce the concept of a gene.

Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

2. Transcription of Messenger RNA (mRNA) from DNA

In this lesson, you will gain a thorough understanding of how transcription works. We will investigate how DNA is transcribed into RNA with the help of a promoter and RNA polymerase. Learn the purpose of messenger RNA and explore the three phases of transcription.

Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

3. Regulation of Gene Expression: Transcriptional Repression and Induction

Do our genes work the same way all the time? How do we regulate the expression of our genes? Explore the various ways organisms control gene transcription through repression and induction of operons.

How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

4. How An Operon Controls Transcription in a Prokaryotic Cell

Is gene regulation really as simple as flipping a switch? What are the parts of an operon, and how do they function to control gene transcription? We'll study the lac operon to answer these questions.

RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

5. RNA Processing in a Eukaryotic Cell: Splicing of Introns & Exons

In this lesson, we'll explore the unique considerations for gene regulation in the eukaryotic cell. We'll walk through RNA splicing of introns and exons and the addition of the 5' cap and poly(A) tail.

What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

6. What Is the Genetic Code That Translates RNA Into Amino Acids?

How is RNA translated into a series of amino acids? Learn the language of the genetic code, explore a codon dictionary, and discover some basics of genetics in this lesson on translation.

Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

7. Making Sense of the Genetic Code: Codon Recognition

Explore the genetic code and how it is translated into a polypeptide. We'll practice using the RNA codon chart and learn the basics of codon recognition.

Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

8. Codon Recognition: How tRNA and Anticodons Interpret the Genetic Code

How does codon recognition work at the molecular level? Can you use tRNA and anticodons to decipher the genetic code? Learn the mechanics of codon recognition and build a polypeptide from a sample genetic code.

The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

9. The Role of Ribosomes and Peptide Bonds in Genetic Translation

Ribosomes play a major role in the process of genetic translation. In this lesson, learn about the structure of ribosomes and how peptide bonds help to create chains of amino acids.

Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

10. Translation of mRNA to Protein: Initiation, Elongation & Termination Steps

Translation, the second part of the central dogma of molecular biology, describes how the genetic code is used to make amino acid chains. In this lesson, explore the mechanics involved in polypeptide synthesis. Learn the three major steps of translation as you watch tRNA, mRNA, and ribosomes go to work.

Chapter Practice Exam
Test your knowledge of this chapter with a 30 question practice chapter exam.
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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Other Chapters

Other chapters within the AEPA General Science (NT311): Practice & Study Guide course

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