About This Chapter
AEPA General Science: Reproduction & Development - Chapter Summary
Recall various aspects of human and animal biology and, specifically, the reproductive and development processes. This chapter's video lessons will remind you of life's beginnings and the many intricate systems that are involved. Learn more about embryo implantation and the development of cells before you address similar questions on the AEPA General Science examination. The chapter gets you ready for any questions asking about the following:
- Animal reproduction and development
- Understanding the male reproductive system and spermatogenesis
- The female reproductive system and its creation of ova
- Early embryonic development
- Embryo implantation and formation of the placenta
- Structures of the placenta and the fetus
- Parts of embryonic membranes
- Spemann's organizer
- How cells differentiate
- Fate mapping techniques
Watch these videos in preparation for obtaining a general science teaching certification when you pass the AEPA General Science examination. Study the above topics at your convenience via your mobile or wired technology. The videos can be paused and re-watched to allow you to better absorb the information. There are also text transcripts and worksheets that you might review. Measure your progress when you take the short quizzes that accompany each of the video lessons.
1. Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development
At this stage in life, you likely know where babies come from. However, did you know that some animals can make clones of themselves and reproduce sexually too? In this lesson, you'll learn more about sexual reproduction and early vertebrate development.
2. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm
In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.
3. Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs
Did you know that a human female already has all of the oocytes that she will make in her entire life before she is even born? In this lesson, you'll learn how the human body produces an ovum through the process of oogenesis. You'll also learn how polar bodies help to ensure that female gametes are of high quality even though they are not produced in high quantities.
4. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula
This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.
5. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.
6. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function
Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.
7. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac
From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.
8. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)
Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.
9. Spemann's Organizer: Controller of Cell Fate
Have you ever wondered how different parts of a developing embryo know what kind of tissue to become? What prevents two heads from developing on the same embryo, or for that matter, what ensures that a head develops at all? A small group of cells called Spemann's organizer determines the fates of the cells around them.
10. Concentration Gradients, Signaling Molecules & Inhibitors in Development
The discovery and characterization of Spemann's organizer was a significant achievement in the field of developmental biology, but this small piece of the dorsal lip is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to coordinating the differentiation of all of the various tissue types in a growing embryo. In this lesson, you'll learn about concentration gradients and how they can be used to create various combinations of signaling molecules in different parts of the embryo.
11. How Signaling Molecules Control Differentiation
From signaling molecules to transcription factors and gene expression, in this lesson you'll learn what it takes for a cell to differentiate. You'll also learn some of the ways a cell can make sense of different combinations of signaling molecules and how these combinations can be used to guide a cell through the process of differentiation.
12. How Fate Mapping Is Used to Track Cell Development
Over the years, scientists have developed several methods to label and track groups of cells as they develop. These types of experiments are called fate mapping studies. In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of fate mapping and see how technology has allowed scientists to improve fate mapping techniques.
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Other chapters within the AEPA General Science (NT311): Practice & Study Guide course
- General Science: Scientific Inquiry
- General Science: Scientific Laws & Theories
- General Science: Scientific Data & Analysis
- General Science: Laboratory Equipment & Safety
- General Science: Science & Society
- General Science: Science in Daily Life
- General Science: Organization of Matter
- General Science: Characteristics of Matter
- General Science: Atomic Structure
- General Science: Nuclear Chemistry
- General Science: Energy & Matter
- General Science: Simple Compounds & Chemical Formulas
- General Science: Types of Chemical Reactions
- General Science: The Mole Concept
- General Science: The Periodic Table
- General Science: Chemical Reactions
- General Science: Equilibrium
- General Science: Acid-Base Chemistry
- General Science: Solutions & Solubility Factors
- General Science: Physics & Motion
- General Science: Newton's Laws
- General Science: Analyzing Motion
- General Science: Analyzing Forces
- General Science: Electrical Concepts
- General Science: Magnetic Fields & Forces
- General Science: Electromagnetic Spectrum
- General Science: Waves, Optics & Sound
- General Science: Cell Structure & Function
- General Science: Cell Reproduction & Division
- General Science: Biochemistry of Life
- General Science: Characteristics of Living Organisms
- General Science: Plant Structures & Functions
- General Science: The Circulatory System
- General Science: The Nervous System
- General Science: The Immune & Endocrine Systems
- General Science: Other Physiological Systems
- General Science: Basic Genetics
- General Science: DNA Transcription & Translation Process
- General Science: Genetic Engineering
- General Science: Evolution
- General Science: History of Life
- General Science: Ecosystems
- General Science: Community & Population Ecology
- General Science: Earth Materials
- General Science: Rocks & Minerals
- General Science: Historical Geology
- General Science: Erosion, Weathering & Wasting
- General Science: Earth's Structure & Processes
- General Science: Plate Tectonics
- General Science: The Water Cycle
- General Science: Oceans
- General Science: Glaciers
- General Science: Other Bodies of Water
- General Science: Earth's Atmosphere & Climate
- General Science: Basic Weather Concepts
- General Science: The Solar System
- General Science: Earth, Moon & Sun
- General Science: Characteristics of the Moon
- General Science: The Universe
- General Science: Orbits of Celestial Bodies
- AEPA General Science Flashcards