About This Chapter
AFOQT: Atoms & Matter - Chapter Summary
The Air Force Officer Qualifying Test is the assessment used to predict success in certain Air Force training programs. This study guide will help you prepare content related to atoms and matter present on the test, such as Avogadro's number, early atomic theory, and phase changes. After completing the lessons you will have reviewed:
- Atomic and mass number
- Elements and the Periodic Table
- Ionic and covalent bonds
- Composition of elements
- Compounds and molecules
- Matter and its states
- Chemical equations and how to balance them
- Chemical reactions and energy change
This comprehensive guide, which includes both instructional materials and assessments, simplifies the learning process. You are able to both learn and test the knowledge you have gained in one place. If you miss any of the quiz questions, you'll be provided with a quick link back to the section of the video that addressed that topic.
1. Early Atomic Theory: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford and Millikan
Imagine firing a bullet at a piece of tissue paper and having it bounce back at you! You would probably be just as surprised as Rutherford when he discovered the nucleus. In this lesson, we are going to travel back in time and discuss some of the major discoveries in the history of the atom.
2. What Are Elements?
Look around you. What do you see? Elements are everywhere. They are the building blocks of all matter on Earth. In this lesson, we will discuss what an element is, how elements are written as symbols, and how elements are the building blocks of all matter.
3. Atomic Number and Mass Number
Atoms are the basic building blocks of everything around you. In order to really understand how atoms combine to form molecules, it's necessary to be familiar with their structure. In this lesson, we'll dissect atoms so we can see just what really goes into those little building blocks of matter.
4. The Periodic Table: Properties of Groups and Periods
How is the periodic table like the map you used on your last road trip? In this lesson, you will be introduced to the periodic table, the road map of chemists. We will discuss how the elements are organized and how you can use this organization to identify some of their major physical properties.
5. How Compounds and Molecules Are Built From Elements
Did you know that elements are like people and have different personalities? A few elements are very shy and love to be left alone. Others are very social and prefer to hang out with friends. In this lesson we will discuss how elements build molecules and compounds.
6. Ionic Bonds: Definitions and Examples
Did you know that when atoms stick together to form molecules, they gain and lose electrons, making them negatively or positively charged? In this lesson, you will learn how cations and anions form one type of chemical bond called an ionic bond.
7. Polar and Nonpolar Covalent Bonds: Definitions and Examples
Did you know that some types of chemical bonds behave similarly to the way that children play with toys? In this lesson, you will learn about two types of bonds called polar and nonpolar covalent bonds.
8. The Electron Shell
You may be familiar with the role of electrons in electrical devices, but did you know that electrons also determine the chemical reactivity of everything around you?
9. Matter: Physical and Chemical Properties
How are substances identified? There are two major ways we can describe a substance: physical properties and chemical properties. Learn about how chemists use properties to classify matter as either a mixture or a pure substance.
10. States of Matter: Solids, Liquids, Gases, & Plasma
Learn the four states of matter in the universe: solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Learn about the differences in shape and volume among the four states, which of the states is the most common and why plasma conducts electricity.
11. Phase Change: Evaporation, Condensation, Freezing, Melting, Sublimation & Deposition
Substances on Earth can exist in one of four phases, but mostly, they exist in one of three: solid, liquid or gas. Learn the six changes of phase: freezing, melting, condensation, vaporization, sublimation and deposition.
12. Common Chemical Reactions and Energy Change
This lesson covers the five common types of chemical reactions: combination, decomposition, single-replacement, double-replacement, and combustion. You will learn how to predict what kind of chemical reaction will occur. You'll also explore how matter is conserved, but energy can change.
13. Chemical Reactions and Balancing Chemical Equations
In this lesson, you'll learn how to balance a chemical reaction equation using the conservation of matter law. You'll also learn how to write both word and formula equations, what the subscripts after a letter mean and what the numbers in front of compounds mean.
14. Avogadro's Number: Using the Mole to Count Atoms
How do we move from the atomic world to the regular world? Because atoms are so tiny, how can we count and measure them? And what do chemists celebrate at 6:02 AM on October 23rd each year? In this lesson, you will be learning how Avogadro's number and the mole can answer these questions.
15. Mole-to-Mole Ratios and Calculations of a Chemical Equation
Learn what a mole ratio is and how to determine and write the mole ratio relating two substances in a chemical equation in this video lesson. Also, learn to make mole-to-mole calculations and solve problems involving moles of substances.
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Other chapters within the AFOQT: Practice & Study Guide course
- AFOQT: Word Comprehension
- AFOQT: Analogies
- AFOQT: Arithmetic Comprehension
- AFOQT: Arithmetic Equations
- AFOQT: Factoring
- AFOQT: Exponents & Roots
- AFOQT: Word Problems
- AFOQT: Algebraic Expressions
- AFOQT: Graphs, Linear Equations & Parabolas
- AFOQT: Quadratic Equations
- AFOQT: Polynomials, Functions & Rational Expressions
- AFOQT: Principles of Geometry
- AFOQT: Lines & Angles
- AFOQT: Circles & Triangles
- AFOQT: Rectangles & Solids
- AFOQT: Figures & Polygons
- AFOQT: Three-dimensional Blocks
- AFOQT: Object Visualization & Manipulation
- AFOQT: Table Knowledge
- AFOQT: Instrument Knowledge
- AFOQT: Aviation
- AFOQT: The Metric System & Scientific Notation
- AFOQT: Thermodynamics & Electricity
- AFOQT: Magnetism
- AFOQT: Earth Science
- AFOQT: Biomolecules & Cells
- AFOQT: Human Anatomy
- AFOQT: Personality Traits & Attitudes
- AFOQT Flashcards