About This Chapter
Alterations of the Musculoskeletal System - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
The musculoskeletal system includes bone, muscle and connecting tissue. Through the video lessons in this chapter, you can learn about the anatomy and function of the organs. You will get a look at the causes, symptoms and treatments of several diseases and conditions, including cancer, osteoporosis, arthritis and broken bones. By the conclusion of this chapter, you should have an understanding of:
- Anatomy and structure of joints, the skeletal system and the muscular system
- Types, causes, symptoms and treatments of various types of arthritis
- Muscle and skeletal tumors
- Types of broken bones and luxations
- Diseases of musculoskeletal system, such as Paget's disease and Marfan syndrome
|Bone Tissue: Functions and Types||Learn about the purpose of bone tissue and the differences in types.|
|Skeletal System and Muscular System||Learn about the components of these systems and their function.|
|Joints: Structure and Functions||Learn how joints are made and what they do.|
|What Is Myopathy? - Definition, Causes and Symptoms||Examine the causes and classes of myopathies, dystrophy and related conditions.|
|Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Affected Locations, Signs and Treatments||Learn about the locations, epidemiology, signs and treatment of this disease.|
|Osteoarthritis: Causes, Mechanism and Treatment||Learn the symptoms, causes and treatments of osteoarthritis.|
|What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis? - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment||Understand what tissues and structures are involved and examine the rheumatoid factor and how it's used in medicine.|
|What Is Ankylosing Spondylitis? - Symptoms and Treatment||Learn the causes of this condition, along with symptoms and treatment options.|
|What Is Gout? - Causes, Symptoms and Treatment||Examine the many causes of gout, along with its underlying chemistry, including the role of uric acid.|
|How Psoriasis Can Cause Arthritis||Explore the causes, symptoms and treatment of psoriatic arthritis.|
|Infectious Causes of Arthritis: Sepsis and Lyme||Learn how arthritis can be caused by an infection, the difference between septic and non-septic arthritis and the signs of Lyme disease.|
|What Is Osteomyelitis? - Definition, Symptoms and Treatment||Explore the symptoms, signs and treatment of osteomyelitis, including radiographic changes.|
|What Is Osteoporosis? - Definition, Causes and Treatment||Understand how osteoporosis affects bone, how nutrition, hormones and age are related and look at treatment options.|
|Osteomalacia and Rickets: Causes and Symptoms||Define these conditions and find out about treatments.|
|Paget's Disease of Bone: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments||Examine the causes, symptoms and treatments.|
|The Types of Broken Bones and Luxations||Learn about various types of fractures, dislocations and subluxations.|
|The Different Types of Skeletal and Muscle Tumors||Understand osteosarcoma, fibrosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.|
|Marfan Syndrome: Signs and Management||Explore this condition and affected locations, epidemiology, signs and treatments.|
1. Bone Tissue: Functions and Types
The bones are considered connective tissues since these act as connections and supports for the entire human body. Learn about the histology of bones, the different cells that make up the bone structure, and their specific functions.
2. Skeletal System and Muscular System
The skeletal system provides a framework for muscles and tissues, protects the internal organs, and gives shape to the body, while the muscular system allows movement of the body, digestion, circulation, stability, and posture. Discover the major components of the skeletal system and the types of muscles in the muscular system.
3. Joints: Structure and Functions
Joints are locations throughout the human skeletal system where two or more bones come together to allow for movement and support of the body. Learn about the structure of joints, the function of joint capsules, synovial membrane, bursa, meniscus, and the importance of synovial fluid in reducing friction between bones.
4. What is Myopathy? - Definition, Causes & Symptoms
Muscle weakness, cramps, and spasms due to a defect in the muscle fiber are known as myopathy. Understand cramps and muscle fatigue, along with the definition, causes, and symptoms of myopathy, examine congenital and acquired myopathies, and explore diagnosing and treating myopathies.
5. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: Affected Locations, Signs & Treatments
Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease linked to the X chromosome that affects mostly boys. Learn what Duchenne muscular dystrophy is, why it occurs, the affected locations, clinical signs, diagnosis, and treatments for patients with the disease.
6. Osteoarthritis: Causes, Mechanism, and Treatment
Osteoarthritis or OA is a disease where the joint cartilage and subchondral bone are degenerated and modified. Study the causes and mechanism of osteoarthritis, and learn about the symptoms and treatment of this disease.
7. What is Rheumatoid Arthritis? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disorder that generally affects the joints of the hands and the feet. Understand this bad form of arthritis, the definition, and cause of rheumatoid arthritis, and examine the clinical signs, symptoms, diagnostics, and treatment of this autoimmune disease.
8. What is Ankylosing Spondylitis? - Symptoms & Treatment
Ankylosing spondylitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints in the body. Study the definition of ankylosing spondylitis and why it occurs, the symptoms of the disease like pain and stiffness in the back, and learn about the treatment, which typically is a combination of anti-inflammatory drugs, exercise, and therapy.
9. What is Gout? - Causes, Symptoms & Treatment
Gout is a type of arthritis that causes excessive pain and swelling in the joints and can be characterized as the accumulation of garbage in the body. Discover the causes, clinical signs, symptoms, diagnostics, and treatment for gout, and stick around to learn a fun fact.
10. How Psoriasis Can Cause Arthritis
Although not fully understood, psoriasis is associated with a separate condition known as psoriatic arthritis as both diseases are caused by immune system disorders and involve inflammation. Learn the definition of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis and how they are related, as well as the clinical signs, symptoms, diagnostic criteria, and available prevention and treatment options.
11. Infectious Causes of Arthritis: Sepsis and Lyme
Septic arthritis is a form of arthritis in the joint caused by an infectious agent, typically a bacterium. Learn about the infectious causes of arthritis, the diagnosis and treatment of septic arthritis, and discover why Lyme arthritis is different from most other types of the disease.
12. What is Osteomyelitis? - Definition, Symptoms & Treatment
Osteomyelitis is a rare bone infection that may be acute or chronic and is usually caused by bacteria or fungi. Learn about the definition of osteomyelitis, discover why this infection occurs, and understand its clinical signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment.
13. What is Osteoporosis? - Definition, Causes & Treatment
Osteoporosis occurs when a person's bones become less dense, making them fragile and brittle. Learn the definition of osteoporosis, then explore its clinical signs, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment, and prevention.
14. Osteomalacia and Rickets: Causes and Symptoms
A long-term excessive deficiency in Vitamin D is known as osteomalacia in adults, and rickets when in children, and can cause weakened, easily fractured bones. Find out the 'why' behind these conditions, the clinical diagnostic criteria, and the treatment or prevention of both.
15. Paget's Disease of Bone: Causes, Symptoms & Treatments
Paget's disease of bone refers to the condition that results in large bones with irregular shapes, accompanied by pain. Learn the definition of Paget's disease of bone, explore its causes, symptoms, and diagnostic methods, and understand the treatments.
16. The Types of Broken Bones and Luxations
Bones can break in many different ways, and joints can completely or partially dislocate. Explore the different types of bone fractures, such as complete, incomplete, open, and closed fractures, and joint dislocations: luxations and subluxations.
17. The Different Types of Skeletal and Muscle Tumors
Rhabdomyosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, and osteosarcoma are three types of skeletal and muscle tumors that can affect the muscle structures of the body. Learn about the main muscles of the human body and the different types of skeletal and muscle tumors.
18. Marfan Syndrome: Signs and Management
Marfan syndrome is an incurable connective tissue disorder that is caused by a genetic mutation. Explore the definition, causes, signs, and symptoms of Marfan syndrome, as well as the diagnostic criteria, prevention, treatment, and management of the genetic connective tissue disorder.
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Other chapters within the Pathophysiology Textbook course
- The Basic Components of Pathophysiology
- The Consequences of an Aberrant Immune System
- The Pathophysiology of Neoplasia
- Skin Related Pathology
- Trauma and Injury to the Nervous System
- Major Disorders Involving the Nervous System
- Congenital Cardiovascular Defects
- Acquired Cardiovascular Abnormalities
- Pathologies of the Respiratory System
- Important Renal Anatomy and Physiology
- Diseases of the Urinary System
- Conditions Affecting the Gastrointestinal System
- Metabolic Derangements
- Blood Disorders: Anemia
- Hematological Maladies
- Blood Cancers
- Reproductive System Disorders
- Clinical Test Results: Electrolytes, Cells, and Blood Proteins
- Clinical Test Results: Organ Function and Health