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Ch 12: American Industrialization of the Late 19th Century

About This Chapter

Watch video lessons and learn about the industrial advances that took place in American during the late 1800s, including their human costs and impact on agriculture.

American Industrialization of the Late 19th Century

In this chapter, you'll find out how the United States transitioned from a primarily agrarian society into an industrialized nation during a period sometimes referred to as the 'Gilded Age.' At the beginning of the chapter, you'll learn how a man named Henry Bessemer came up with an economical way to mass produce steel and helped to mechanize American industry. You'll also meet up with a group of industrial leaders known as the Robber Barons and become acquainted with their controversial business practices and philanthropic activities.

Labor conditions will be covered, including union and worker attempts to address factory safety and pay issues. You'll also learn about the difficulties faced by farmers during the Industrial Revolution, as well as how they eventually organized on a national level. When you've finished watching the videos and completing the self-assessments, you should be familiar with the following topics:

  • Monetary, regulatory and tax policies of the Gilded Age
  • Mechanical and management developments, including automated manufacturing
  • Labor conditions and relations, including the role of labor unions in protecting workers
  • Political and social movements, including the Grangers, Populist Party and Social Gospel
  • The third wave of immigration and nativist opposition to foreign-born residents
  • Urbanization, including its cultural, economic and social challenges

VideoObjective
Economic Policies during the Second Industrial RevolutionDescribe the economic policies that were in place during the Second Industrial or Technological Revolution.
American Industry Development in the Gilded Age: Bessemer Process, Scientific Management and New Business ModelsDiscuss the groundbreaking Bessemer steel process, labor efficiency principles and organizational business structures that developed during the Gilded Age.
Andrew Carnegie and the Robber BaronsExplain why Andrew Carnegie was considered a Robber Baron.
Labor Conditions during the Second Industrial RevolutionDescribe what labor conditions were like during the Second Industrial Revolution.
Gilded Age Politics: Political Machines and Civil Service ReformDiscuss the political aspects of the Gilded Age.
Labor Unions during the Second Industrial Revolution: Organized Labor vs. ManagementSummarize the objectives and actions of the organized labor movement, including confrontations with the government and management.
The Grange and the Populist Party Platform: Goals, History and DefinitionsDefine the objectives of the Grangers and Populist platforms.
Immigration in Industrial America and the Rise of NativismProvide an overview of immigration trends during the Second Industrial Revolution, including nativist fears and legislation.
Urbanization during the Second Industrial Revolution in America: Effects and ProblemsDescribe the issues associated with urbanization, including those related to health and housing.
The Social Gospel Movement: Definition and Goals of Urban Reform MovementsDefine the Social Gospel movement and its objectives.
Middle Class Opportunities in American Cities during the Second Industrial RevolutionDiscuss urban prospects for middle-class Americans during the Second Industrial Revolution.

11 Lessons in Chapter 12: American Industrialization of the Late 19th Century
Economic Policies During the Second Industrial Revolution

1. Economic Policies During the Second Industrial Revolution

With encouragement from the federal government, the Second Industrial Revolution transformed America from an agrarian nation into an industrial power. The mixed effects of these changes on the American people prompted Mark Twain to dub the period the 'Gilded Age.'

American Industry Development in the Gilded Age: Bessemer Process, Scientific Management & New Business Models

2. American Industry Development in the Gilded Age: Bessemer Process, Scientific Management & New Business Models

American industry was transformed in the Second Industrial Revolution but not just through mechanization. Find out how new methods of management and organization helped the development of big business.

Andrew Carnegie and the Robber Barons

3. Andrew Carnegie and the Robber Barons

The Second Industrial Revolution created enormous wealth for industrialists like Andrew Carnegie. These corporate leaders were sometimes called Robber Barons for their questionable business practices, but they were also well-known for their philanthropy.

Labor Conditions During the Second Industrial Revolution

4. Labor Conditions During the Second Industrial Revolution

In the period between the Civil War and World War I, the American economy - supported by industry rather than agriculture - boomed. But, not everything glittered in the Gilded Age. Learn about the difficult, dangerous conditions of work during the Second Industrial Revolution.

Gilded Age Politics: Political Machines & Civil Service Reform

5. Gilded Age Politics: Political Machines & Civil Service Reform

Refresh your memory of the 'Forgotten Presidents' of the Gilded Age, and learn how Civil Service Reform might have cleaned up the federal government, but not the cities and states. They were the domain of political machines, like Tammany Hall.

Labor Unions During the Second Industrial Revolution: Organized Labor vs. Management

6. Labor Unions During the Second Industrial Revolution: Organized Labor vs. Management

Before American businesses had to comply with basic labor laws and safety regulations, workers organized to improve their working conditions. Learn about the early labor unions and their violent clashes with management and government.

The Grange and the Populist Party Platform: Goals, History & Definitions

7. The Grange and the Populist Party Platform: Goals, History & Definitions

During the Gilded Age of the late 19th century, farm prices fell and the federal government began supporting industry. Farmers first organized the Grange, a social movement that turned political with Farmers' Alliances. The Populist Party emerged to represent agrarian interests at the national level.

Immigration in Industrial America and the Rise of Nativism

8. Immigration in Industrial America and the Rise of Nativism

Between the Civil War and WWI, America experienced a massive third wave of immigration. Learn about where these immigrants came from, where they went and how 'native' Americans responded to them.

Urbanization During the Second Industrial Revolution in America: Effects & Problems

9. Urbanization During the Second Industrial Revolution in America: Effects & Problems

After the Civil War, America transformed from a rural nation to an urban nation. Learn where all those people came from and why. Using New York City as an example, you'll see some of the problems of urbanization and the steps they took to improve it.

The Social Gospel Movement: Definition and Goals of Urban Reform Movements

10. The Social Gospel Movement: Definition and Goals of Urban Reform Movements

Many Americans were desperately poor around the turn of the 20th century. The Social Gospel movement emerged among Protestant Christians to improve the economic, moral and social conditions of the urban working class.

Middle Class Opportunities in American Cities During the Second Industrial Revolution

11. Middle Class Opportunities in American Cities During the Second Industrial Revolution

In the late 1800s, a new middle class emerged in America. In this lesson, learn about new opportunities available to these urbanites, including technology, sports and leisure, education and the arts.

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