About This Chapter
Standard: Analyze and evaluate the effectiveness of the structure an author uses in his or her exposition or argument, including whether the structure makes points clear, convincing, and engaging. (CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RI.11-12.5)
About This Chapter
As your students develop strong critical analysis skills in evaluating the structure of research materials they can more clearly identify an author's intent and the effectiveness of their argument. Your students should be able to break down the text into its component parts and describe how the parts relate and what literary tools the author used in the construction of each. Categories of information taught in these videos include:
- Types of figurative speech, including similes, metaphors, synecdoche and personification
- Examples of cliches, paradoxed, allusion, illusion and allegory
- Identifying symbolism, imagery, and oxymorons
- Interpreting figures of speech within a context
- Elements and characteristics of technical communication
- How to analyze and interpret the content of texts and literary meaning
- Close reading and big picture reading strategies
- Strategies for analyzing structure in informational texts
- Assessing sources for reliability
- The parts of an argument and assessing the argument in a text
- Logic and logical fallacies
- Methods of organization and arrangement ideas in writing
- Character and idea development in texts
- Determining cause and effect in a passage
- How writing structure affects meaning
- Arranging ideas and determining sequence of events
- Analyzing graphic information in a text
Students who understand these concepts can exhibit greater dexterity and efficiency while evaluating the content of various types of informational texts. They will draw conclusions about the text and the author based on how things are written in addition to the direct meaning of the text itself. You can measure your students' progress as the depth of their exploration of informational texts deepens in their written analyses and as their vocabulary in writing and discussing the texts increases.
How to Use These Lessons in Your Classroom
There are many ways you can incorporate these lessons into your classroom instruction; here are a few ideas.
Small group text analysis
Watch the video 'Analyzing Structure in an Informational Text' with your students in class. Then split your class into small groups and provide a sample text to each of them. Instruct them to discuss the structure of the text and whether the structure supports the message and jot down the main points of their analysis. Compare and contrast the results as a class.
After watching the videos on logic and logical fallacies in class, have students engage in a search for fallacies in conversation and media throughout the day. They should record each instance in their journal with a description of what kind of fallacy was exhibited and why it fails logically. Have each student share one of theirs the next day in class. Who found the most?
Help students who are expected to miss school on authorized absences keep up with school work. Assign the videos related to structure analysis they will miss in class as homework using your teacher's interface. Have the students complete the quizzes and chapter test to make sure they are comprehending all of the information.
1. What is a Metaphor? - Examples, Definition & Types
Metaphors are all around you. They're the bright sparkling lights that turn plain evergreens into Christmas trees. Learn how to spot them, why writers write with them, and how to use them yourself right here.
2. Cliches, Paradoxes & Equivocations: Definitions & Examples
Learn about cliches, paradoxes, and equivocations, and how they can weaken or strengthen certain types of writing. Explore examples of all three from literature and daily life.
3. Personification and Apostrophe: Differences & Examples
In this lesson, explore how writers use personification to give human characteristics to objects, ideas, and animals. Learn about apostrophe, or when characters speak to objects, ideas, and even imaginary people as if they were also characters.
4. Similes in Literature: Definition and Examples
Explore the simile and how, through comparison, it is used as a shorthand to say many things at once. Learn the difference between similes and metaphors, along with many examples of both.
5. Synecdoche vs. Metonymy: Definitions & Examples
Would you lend your ears for a moment (or at least your eyeballs)? This lesson will explain what synecdoche and metonymy mean and how to spot them in a piece of prose or poetry.
6. Allusion and Illusion: Definitions and Examples
Allusions and illusions have little in common besides the fact that they sound similar. Learn the difference between the two and how allusions are an important part of literature and writing - and how to spot them in text.
7. Allegory in Literature: History, Definition & Examples
Learn about allegories and how stories can be used to deliver messages, lessons or even commentaries on big concepts and institutions. Explore how allegories range from straightforward to heavily-veiled and subtle.
8. Symbolism & Imagery in Literature: Definitions & Examples
In this lesson you will learn how poets and authors use symbolism in their writing to make it more meaningful and interesting. Explore how descriptive writing called imagery appeals to the senses, adding to works of literature.
9. How to Recognize and Use Oxymorons
In this lesson, we will define the figure of speech called an oxymoron and look at several examples. We will then discuss how to recognize oxymorons and use them correctly in writing.
10. Interpreting Figures of Speech in Context
Figures of speech can add humor or drama to any situation, but you have to understand what they mean in order to connect the dots. In this lesson, we'll discuss how to interpret figures of speech, such as verbal irony, puns, idioms, and hyperbole.
11. Technical Communication: Definition & Purpose
Technical communication is a part of almost every job. This video provides the definition and purpose of technical communication, and explains why technical communication is important for businesses and consumers.
12. Characteristics of Technical Communication
It is important to understand the characteristics of technical communication in order to write documents that meet the needs of your audience. This video provides the characteristics of the subject, audience, purpose and style of technical communications.
13. How to Analyze a Literary Passage: A Step-by-Step Guide
In this lesson, we will examine the steps involved in the basic analysis of literature. Then, using a well-known fable, we will go through each step of analysis: comprehension, interpreting and drawing conclusions.
14. Close Reading vs. Big Picture Reading Strategies
In this lesson, learn about two different approaches to reading a work of literature: big picture strategies and close reading strategies. Discover how these two perspectives can be put into practice through examples from the play 'Romeo and Juliet.'
15. Interpreting Literary Meaning: How to Use Text to Guide Your Interpretation
In this lesson, we will discuss how to find and interpret literary meaning in writings. The lesson will focus on using the text to find key elements to guide your interpretation.
16. Analyzing Structure in an Informational Text
In this lesson, we examine several of the most common structures that an informational text might use and the different ways each structure helps an author create an argument or deliver their message.
17. Navigating a Reading Passage with Transitions
In this lesson, you'll get some tips and advice for using transitional words or phrases to navigate a reading passage and find the main point. Then, you can practice yourself in the quiz.
18. Parts of An Argument: Claims, Counterclaims, Reasons, and Evidence
To effectively write an argument, you need to know the four basic parts. In this lesson, you will learn the definitions of the four basic parts and why you need them in an argument.
19. How to Analyze an Argument's Effectiveness & Validity
In this lesson, we will learn how to analyze an argument. We will pay close attention to the parts of an argument and the questions we must ask about each of those parts in order to determine the argument's effectiveness and validity.
20. Assessing the Reliability and Validity of Sources
In the business world, any research material must have support that can provide validity and reliability. The support must be credible and have documentation to show that it is well-researched, professional, peer-reviewed and recent.
21. Logical Fallacy: Definition & Examples
This lesson will introduce you to the logical fallacy and explain how it works in an argument. We'll also discuss examples of common fallacies and the importance of identifying and avoiding them in effective arguments. Then test your knowledge with a quiz.
22. What are Logical Fallacies? - Define, Identify and Avoid Them
Logical fallacies are flaws in reasoning that can throw your argument off track and confuse your reader. This video explains how to identify a few common logical fallacies and how to steer clear of them.
23. Logical Fallacies: Appeals to Ignorance, Emotion or Popularity
Watch this video lesson to see examples of the logical fallacies of appeals to ignorance, emotion, and popularity. You will also see how to identify them.
24. Logical Fallacies: Hasty Generalization, Circular Reasoning, False Cause & Limited Choice
Watch this video lesson to see how you can identify cases where logic is not sound. Learn the characteristic traits of hasty generalization, circular reasoning, false cause, and limited choice.
25. Either/Or Fallacy: Examples & Overview
This lesson examines the either/or logical fallacy, whereby a party in an argument characterizes a complex problem as having only two possible solutions.
26. Logical Appeal: Definition & Examples
Learn about logical appeals and how they're used to persuade. Find out how to use logical appeals in your writing and how fallacies can undermine your logic.
27. Organizing and Categorizing Ideas, Concepts and Information
In this lesson, you will learn clear, simple ways to group your ideas together. First, you'll figure out what the paper is about, and then the rest is easy!
28. How to Determine the Cause and Effect of an Event in a Passage
Recognize and understand how cause and effect relates to literature. Learn how to determine and find cause and effect in a reading passage, along with a strategy to assist you.
29. How to Determine the Text Structure of a Passage Using Transitions
Text structures are identifiable patterns in the organization of text in a written work. This lesson will discuss the use of transitions to determine text structure. We will end with a very short quiz to see what you have learned.
30. What is Structure in Writing and How Does it Affect Meaning?
In this lesson, we will define the role of structure in literature. From there, we will look at the different ways to structure fiction and how it affects the meaning.
31. How to Arrange Ideas in a Reading Selection in an Outline
Organizing ideas presented in a reading selection can seem like a tricky task. But, in this lesson, we'll discuss how to do this effectively and why it is an important skill to master.
32. Determining the Sequence of Events or Steps in a Reading Selection
News articles or other types of informational texts can be structured through a sequence of events or steps. In this lesson, we will examine how that is done and how to identify this structure.
33. How to Analyze Graphic Information Inside a Text
In this lesson, we explore graphic information in texts. We will take a look at the types of graphics often seen in nonfiction, learn how to analyze them, and see how they contribute to the texts' information.
34. Developing Specific Ideas, Characters & Events in a Text
Writers use several tools to develop ideas within their texts. Those tools are how the elements of the text interact with each other, and even with readers. However, the tools a writer uses depends on the genre and purpose of their text.
35. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde: Summary, Themes, Characters and Analysis
In this lesson, we discuss Robert Louis Stevenson's short novel, ''Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.'' After we discuss the plot, we examine the principal characters, and analyze the important themes. A short quiz follows.
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Other chapters within the Common Core ELA - Informational Text Grades 11-12: Standards course
- Informational Texts & Citing Textual Evidence: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.1
- Analyzing & Summarizing Central Ideas: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.2-3
- Word Choice & Tone: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.4
- Author's Purpose & Point of View: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.6
- Accounts in Different Mediums: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.7
- Constitutional Principles & Legal Reasoning: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.8
- Analyzing Seminal US Documents: CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.11-12.9