About This Chapter
Anatomy and Physiology of Male and Female Reproductive Systems - Chapter Summary and Learning Objectives
Let our experienced instructors help you study the different parts and functions of the male and female reproductive systems. You'll explore each system to learn about the complex processes and functions that eventually lead to the creation of life. After completing this chapter, you'll have studied:
- Meiosis, including reductional cell division and equational cell division
- The parts of the male reproductive system and the creation and transport of sperm and seminal fluid
- The female reproductive system, including its parts and how eggs are produced
- The HPG axis, including the hormonal control of the ovarian cycle, changes in hormone levels of the hypothalamus and the ovaries across the ovarian cycle
- The follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle and the phases of the uterine cycle
- The process of life, from ovulation to implantation
|Meiosis I: Reductional Cell Division||See how the division of chromosomes gets underway through the first stages of meiosis.|
|Meiosis II: Equational Cell Division||Go through the second phase of meiosis to study more about cell division.|
|Male Reproductive System: Organs, Functions & Anatomy||Study the parts of the male reproductive system that are responsible for creating and transporting sperm.|
|Male Reproductive System: Accessory Gland Functions||Examine the internal male reproductive system, specifically the accessory glands.|
|Testicular Anatomy: Structure, Terms & Diagrams||Analyze the structure and function of the testes.|
|Male Reproductive System: External Anatomy||Learn about the external male anatomy.|
|Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm||See how sperm is produced.|
|Sperm's Journey from the Testes to Urethral Orifice||Explore the journey of sperm through the male system.|
|Female Reproductive System: Internal Anatomy||Examine the internal structures of the female system.|
|The Uterus and Uterine Wall: Structure and Parts||Study this area of the female system, including a look at the perimetrium, endometrium and cervical canal.|
|External Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System||Find out more about the external anatomy of the female system, including the vaginal canal and clitoris.|
|Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs||Discover how the female body produces eggs.|
|HPG Axis: Hormonal Control of the Ovarian Cycle||Explore how hormones and the HPG axis affect the ovarian cycle.|
|Follicular Phase of the Ovarian Cycle||Discover the characteristics of the follicular phase.|
|Luteal Phase of the Ovarian Cycle||Study the luteal phase with a focus on hormones.|
|The HPG Axis: Hormone Level Changes in Hypothalamus and Ovaries||Study the hormone changes and the effects on the ovaries.|
|The Uterine Cycle: Phases and Endometrial Changes||Analyze the changes in the uterus throughout the uterine cycle.|
|Ovulation to Implantation: Oocyte's Path through Uterine Tubes||Discover more about the journey of the oocyte from the ovary to the uterus.|
1. Male Reproductive System: Functions, Organs & Anatomy
The male reproductive system includes various structures and pathways to transport sperm. Learn about the anatomy, organs, and functions of the male reproductive system.
2. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm
Spermatogenesis is a process that takes place in the seminiferous tubules where sperm, or male gametes, are formed. Discover other processes and concepts about the production of sperm in the male reproductive system.
3. The Uterus and Uterine Wall: Structure and Parts
The uterus is a female reproductive organ that is essential for proper fetal development. Learn about the function of the uterus and uterine wall, the three layers of the uterus (perimetrium, myometrium, & endometrium), and how each layer functions in the proper development of a fetus.
4. HPG Axis: Hormonal Control of the Ovarian Cycle
The female HPG axis involves the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and female gonads (or ovaries) and allows the brain to communicate with the ovaries using hormones. Explore the function of the HPG axis, GnRH patterns, LH and FSH hormones, and HPG signaling.
5. The Uterine Cycle: Secretory Phase
The secretory phase of the uterine cycle (menses) is when a suitable environment is created for an incoming embryo. Discover more about the secretory phase and its relationship to the uterine glands, progesterone, and fertilization.
6. Ovulation to Implantation: Oocyte's Path through Uterine Tubes
Ovulation to implantation involves the journey of the oocyte through uterine tubes. Explore how the egg leaves the ovary and travels down the uterine tube, what happens to the egg if it is not fertilized, and the process of fertilization and cellular division.
7. The Uterine Cycle: Proliferative Phase
The proliferative phase of the uterine cycle is where the endometrium of the uterus is rebuilt. Learn about the uterine cycle, endometrial zones, and the proliferative phase.
8. Follicular Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
During the ovarian cycle, the oocyte, which is the female gamete, grows and matures through different phases, the first of which is the follicular phase. Explore the stages in the follicular phase, including primordial follicle, primary follicle, secondary follicle, tertiary follicle, and ovulation.
9. External Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
The external anatomy of the female reproductive system involves six main structures developed from the same tissues that make the male's external genitals. Learn about the skin folds in the vulva and explore the female erectile structures, including the clitoris and vestibular bulbs.
10. Female Reproductive System: Internal Anatomy
The female reproductive system has multiple structures with specific purposes and functions. Learn about the internal anatomy of the female reproductive system, including the ovaries, cervix, uterine tubes, and uterus.
11. Male Reproductive System: External Anatomy
The external anatomy of the male reproductive system includes the penis, scrotum, and testes, which are designed to work in unison to impregnate females of the same species. Take a closer look at the structures and functions of the human penis, scrotum, and testes.
12. Meiosis I Stages: Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I & Telophase I
In Meiosis I, the number of chromosomes in cells is reduced by one-half. Learn about the different stages of Meiosis I, including Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, and Telophase I.
13. Meiosis II: Definition, Stages & Comparison to Meiosis I
Learn about the definition and stages of meiosis II and how it compares to meiosis I. Compare the types of cell division during meiosis I with that of meiosis II, and take a closer look at the five stages of meiosis II.
14. Male Reproductive System: Accessory Gland Functions
Ninety-five percent of semen is made from secretions from the accessory glands. Learn about the male reproductive system, the difference between sperm and semen, and the functions of the accessory glands (seminal vesicles, prostate, & bulbourethral).
15. Sperm's Journey from the Testes to Urethral Orifice
Spermatozoa are produced in the testes, beginning a journey that plays an important role in reproduction. Explore the detailed path sperm takes from the testes to the urethral orifice with the end goal of passing on its DNA by fertilizing a female egg.
16. Phases of The Ovarian Cycle: Overview from Puberty to Menopause
The ovarian cycle functions in phases from puberty to menopause. Explore the two parts of the ovarian cycle, how timing is involved, the puberty and menopause cycles, and the two phases of reproduction.
17. The Female Reproductive Axis: Coordination of the Brain, Ovaries & Uterus
The female brain emits hormones to let the ovaries know it's time to start the female reproductive process. Learn how the coordination of the brain, ovaries, and uterus results in a continuous, integrated system to prepare the body for reproduction.
18. The Uterine Cycle: Phases and Endometrial Changes
Hormonal changes trigger the phases the female reproduction system goes through over the course of about 28 days. Explore how the phases and endometrial changes specific to the uterine cycle prepare the female body for the implantation of a fertilized egg.
19. The Uterine Cycle: Menses
The uterine cycle is also called the menses or menstrual cycle which takes place each month in preparation for a possible pregnancy. Learn about the menstrual cycle including why and how it occurs.
20. Luteal Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
The luteal phase or post-ovulatory phase of the ovarian cycle occurs immediately after the ovaries release an egg. Learn what happens after ovulation occurs and discover when the formation of the corpus luteum takes place.
21. Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs
Oogenesis is a process that takes place in the ovaries where female gametes or ova are formed. Learn more about oogenesis and other processes in the female reproductive system's production of eggs, such as meiosis, ovulation, and fertilization.
22. The HPG Axis: Hormones of Male Reproduction
Male reproduction is controlled by hormones. Learn about this process, including how males change as they experience puberty. Explore the HPG Axis, the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary, LH, FSH, gonads, testosterone, and inhibin.
23. Testicular Anatomy: Structure, Terms & Diagrams
The testes are the male reproductive organs where spermatogenesis and hormone production occur. Learn about testicular anatomy, the functions of the testes, what takes place in between the seminiferous tubules, and the importance of the testes in human reproduction.
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