About This Chapter
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How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
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- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the ancient literature for 10th grade chapter exam.
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Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in an ancient literature unit of a standard 10th grade English course. Topics covered include:
- The Epic of Gilgamesh
- The Iliad
- The Odyssey
- Greek myth and religion
- The Bible as literary influence
1. The Epic of Gilgamesh
Witness the Epic of Gilgamesh, a story of adventure, love and friendship. This long poem will help us examine the hallmarks of civilization for a Sumerian and the importance of dreams. We'll also cover the Sumerian contributions to the epic form of literature.
2. The Iliad: Greek Epic
This lecture traces the history of Greek epics. It then examines the central themes of 'The Iliad': Xenia, Achilles' wrath, and his quest for immortality. The plot of 'The Iliad' is summarized and attention is drawn to themes from the Sumerian tradition.
3. The Odyssey: Greek Epic
This lecture provides a rough outline of the exploits of Odysseus in Homer's epic poem ''The Odyssey''. You'll learn plot details about this epic poem, in addition to hearing about how this important tale relates to Greek culture and literary works throughout history.
4. The Argonautica Plot Synopsis: The Myth of Jason and the Argonauts
This lesson offers a complete plot synopsis of 'The Argonautica' by Apollonius of Rhodes. Discover the main characters of this romantic twist of a classic Greek myth and learn the similarities between this and 'The Odyssey.'
5. The Aeneid by Virgil
This lesson explores Virgil's 'Aeneid'. It consists of a brief plot synopsis. We stop along the way to look at a few important scenes and offer analysis where necessary.
6. Greek Myth and Religion
This lecture examines the troubles of generalizing Greek religion, before doing just that. It lists the major Olympian gods and their roles. It then explores the function of heroes in Greek religion. Next, the relationship between gods and men is laid out. Finally, it explores aspects of Greek myth that reemerge in Christianity.
7. The Bible as Literary Influence: References and Allusion
In this lesson, we'll consider the ways that many writers were influenced by various aspects of the Bible, both in the past and the present. We'll look at the way the Bible influences the stories and languages of writers and some allusions that authors make to the Bible.
8. The Eumenides by Aeschylus: Summary, Characters & Analysis
You might think trials by jury and fearsome custody battles are relatively new, but you can find out just how far back these procedures go in this lesson. Read more to meet the characters in Aeschylus' 'Eumenides' and to see it summarized and analyzed.
9. The Trilogies of Aeschylus
You might not be able to say his name, but you probably wouldn't have some of your favorite tragic stories without the Greek playwright, Aeschylus. Check out this lesson to explore his invention of a genre, along with his famous tragic trilogies!
10. Goddess Ishtar of Gilgamesh
In this lesson we explore the ancient Babylonian goddess, Ishtar. The goddess of love and war, Ishtar held an important role in Babylonian society and played key parts in ancient literature.
11. Hrunting Sword in Beowulf
The epic tale 'Beowulf' has intrigued readers for centuries. Find out how what started as a rivalry became a generous gesture - the lending of the hrunting sword, a sword that had never seen defeat.
12. The Sovereignty and Goodness of God by Mary Rowlandson: Summary & Explanation
This lesson will look at Mary Rowlandson's autobiographical account of her abduction by Native Americans. We'll explore the context, events, and impact of her text on the captivity narrative genre.
13. Who is Aesop? - Biography, Fables & Morals
In this lesson, we will discuss the biography of Aesop and the question of whether he truly existed. We will also discuss some of his more famous fables and the morals that these fables taught.
14. Why Study the Bible?
This lesson will provide you reasons for why you should study the Bible from a literary standpoint. When you are finished with this lesson, you will understand how the Bible can be a great literary resource.
15. Figurative Language in The Odyssey
The Odyssey can be a very challenging read. One of the things that makes it difficult, but also interesting, is the use of figurative language. In this lesson, we will find out exactly what that means and take a look at a few examples.
16. Figurative Language in the Bible
The Bible is a collection of many different books considered sacred by people around the world. The books in the Bible contain abundant examples of figurative language. This lesson will focus on figurative language and the ways it is used in the Bible.
17. The Iliad Book 1 Summary
Set during the Trojan War, Homer's ''The Iliad'' recounts events that occur during the war while Agamemnon and Achilles are in an argument. In this lesson, we will learn about that argument as we cover Book 1.
18. The Iliad Book 2 Summary
Book 2 of Homer's 'The Iliad' includes the famous Catalog of Ships and introduces the shrewdness and levelheadedness of Odysseus and Nestor, which are needed to balance the headstrong leadership of Agamemnon.
19. The Iliad Book 3 Summary
In Book 3 of Homer's 'The Iliad', Menelaus and Paris attempt to end the war by engaging in a single combat for Helen, but the interference of the goddess Aphrodite makes the fight end in a controversial draw.
20. The Iliad Book 4 Summary
This lesson provides an overview of Book 4 of Homer's The Iliad, in which the gods reignite the fighting between the Greeks and the Trojans. A bloody battle ensues as the tentative truce is utterly forgotten.
21. The Iliad Book 5 Summary
The battle rages on in Homer's ''The Iliad''. While many brave men lose their lives, the gods intervene to spare the men they favor. This lesson will cover the events of Book 5 in Homer's epic poem.
22. The Iliad Book 6 Summary
Now that the gods have left the battlefield, the bloodshed continues between the Trojans and the Achaeans. Hector returns to the city for a brief time in Book 6 of Homer's ''The Iliad''.
23. The Iliad Book 7 Summary
This lesson provides an overview of Book 7 of Homer's 'The Iliad,' in which the gods arrange a duel between Hector of the Trojans and Ajax of the Greeks in order to stem the war's bloodshed.
24. The Iliad Book 8 Summary
This lesson provides an overview of Book 8 of Homer's 'The Iliad.' In this book, Zeus takes charge of the battle - and of the other gods! He tells everyone what to do, and he manipulates things in battle to favor the Trojans.
25. The Iliad Book 9 Summary
In Book 9 of 'The Iliad', The Achaeans, staring defeat in the face, make a last-ditch effort to get Achilles to stop pouting in his tent and join the fight. It doesn't go well.
26. The Iliad Book 10 Summary
This lesson will summarize the action in Book 10 of Homer's 'The Iliad'. Book 10 involves both the Greek and Trojan sides sending out spies during the night.
27. The Iliad Book 11 Summary
Book 11 of Homer's ~'The Iliad~' is another bloody one. The Greeks wake in the morning, roused by a war cry from the gods. They surge into battle and make much progress at first, but they end the day beaten back once more.
28. The Iliad Book 12 Summary
'The Iliad' is a doozy of a story. It's long, and sometimes it seems like the least interesting parts drag on forever, while the action-packed scenes are barely mentioned. In this lesson, we will take a look at Book 12 and focus on the most important events.
29. The Iliad Book 13 Summary
This lesson will summarize Book 13 of Homer's 'The Iliad.' Book 13 describes the continuing battle between the Greeks and Trojans. Zeus has departed for the time being and Poseidon is now involved, helping out on the Greek side.
30. The Iliad Book 14 Summary
Book 14 of 'The Iliad' is one of the more interesting sections of Homer's epic tale. Because there is so much action, it might be hard to keep track of it all. In this lesson, we will take a look at some of the important events from Book 14.
31. The Iliad Book 15 Summary
This lesson will summarize Book 15 of Homer's 'Iliad.' In Book 15, Zeus and the gods intervene to help give the Trojans the upper hand. We know, though, that the favor of the gods will ultimately fall on the Greeks, and the Trojans days of glory are limited.
32. The Iliad Book 16 Summary
This lesson focuses on Book 16 of 'The Iliad' by Homer. The battle rages on between the Trojan and Achaean forces, and Patroclus devises a scheme to free the Achaean ships from the Trojans.
33. The Iliad Book 17 Summary
Book 17 of 'The Iliad' describes the fight over Patroclus' body that breaks out after his death in Book 16, highlighting the importance of funeral rites in ancient Greek culture.
34. The Iliad Book 18 Summary
This lesson provides an overview of Book 18 of Homer's 'The Iliad'. In this book, Achilles finds out about the death of his friend Patroclus. He is distraught and vows revenge on Hector. The battle rages on between the Trojans and Greeks.
35. The Iliad Book 19 Summary
This lesson will summarize Book 19 of Homer's 'The Iliad.' In Book 19, Achilles mourns Patroclus's death and focuses all his rage toward the Trojans. He puts on his god-made armor and prepares to go into battle at last.
36. The Iliad Book 20 Summary
This lesson provides an overview of Book 20 of Homer's 'The Iliad'. In this book, we see what happens when Achilles joins the battle with his new armor and a big pile of anger.
37. The Iliad Book 21 Summary
This lesson will summarize Book 21 of Homer's 'The Iliad', which finds Achilles battling a river and many other gods joining the fight. By the end of Book 21, the Trojans are able to retreat to their city when Apollo momentarily distracts Achilles.
38. The Iliad Book 22 Summary
This lesson provides an overview of Book 22 of Homer's ''The Iliad''. In this chapter, we finally see Achilles and Hector engage in battle, and things do not end well for Hector.
39. The Iliad Book 23 Summary
This lesson provides an overview of book 23 of Homer's 'The Iliad'. In this chapter, we see Achilles mourn and honor Patroclus by overseeing his friend's funeral and proceeding funeral games.
40. The Iliad Book 24 Summary
In Book 24 of Homer's 'The Iliad', Priam of Troy goes to the Myrmidon camp and asks Achilles for Hector's body. The epic poem ends with the Trojans burying Hector. Read on for the summary of Book 24.
41. When was the Iliad Written?
The great Greek epic poem the Iliad is traditionally ascribed to the writer Homer, who is believed to have lived sometime in the 8th or 9th century BCE. In this lesson, we will explore the evidence for when the Iliad was written by exploring what the Ancient Greeks believed, what archaeological evidence shows, and, finally, what textual analysis reveals.
42. Quotes from The Iliad
Returning home was the motivation for fighting in the Trojan war, in which the gods of ancient Greece were deeply involved, and the burial of killed soldiers was important to the Greek idea of the afterlife. In this lesson, you will learn three key quotes from Homer's epic poem the 'Iliad' that relate to these themes.
43. Themes in The Iliad
Dive into several of the most prominent themes in Homer's epic poem 'The Iliad.' This lesson explores the themes of love and friendship, fate and free will, and honor with concrete details so you can explore the subtext of the poem.
44. The Role of Women in The Iliad
Though best remembered as a war story with a predominantly male cast, ''The Iliad'' depends on several female characters to further its plot and add to its emotional power. In this lesson, we will discuss these women and their role in ''The Iliad.''
45. Fate in The Iliad
In the world of Homer, fate always prevails. However, men, and especially gods, have some room for free will to make choices within the framework of their destinies. This lesson examines the role of fate in Homer's ''Iliad.''
46. Athena in The Iliad
In Homer's classic epic poem, Iliad, gods and goddesses are seen throughout affecting and influencing the lives of mortals. In this lesson we will study Athena, Greek Goddess of Wisdom, a fierce player in the battle between the Greeks and Trojans.
47. Role of the Gods in The Iliad
This lesson will cover the role of the gods in Homer's 'The Iliad.' Main focus will be placed on each of the gods, and how their roles were of great influence in the characters and the events in the poem.
48. Zeus in The Iliad
Zeus is well known as the most powerful god in Greek mythology. This lesson will explore the different roles he took in Homer's, ''The Iliad''. Read on, to learn more about the almighty Zeus.
49. Honor in The Iliad
Honor plays a large role in the daily life and religion of Greek culture, and the great Greek epic the Iliad has much to say about it. This lesson will cover the theme of honor in Homer's Iliad.
50. Epic Similes in The Iliad
Similes are a type of figurative language used to share descriptions through comparisons. We'll review similes and dig deeper into a technique known as the epic simile. This lesson will specifically examine how the epic simile contributes to Homer's classic, 'The Iliad'.
51. Aphrodite in The Iliad
This lesson examines the significance of the role of Aphrodite in Homer's 'The Iliad' and her impact on individual characters, as well as on the narrative from a broader perspective.
52. Paris in The Iliad
Paris is a key figure in Homer's epic poem, ~'The Iliad.~' In this lesson we will learn who Paris is, his role in the story and his actions that determined the plot of the poem.
53. Apollo in The Iliad
In Homer's ''The Iliad'', Apollo, like many of the gods, frequently interferes in the Trojan War. He plays a role in some of the key events in the war, including the death of Patroclus.
54. Thetis in The Iliad
No matter how old or how strong we get, sometimes in life we all just want our mother. In this lesson, we will learn more about Achilles' mother Thetis, and the role she plays in the events of ''The Iliad''.
55. Hera in The Iliad
This lesson takes a look at the Greek goddess Hera and the role she plays in Homer's epic poem 'The Iliad.' We learn about Hera's past, the part she plays in the Trojan War, and her motivations for doing so.
56. Kleos in The Iliad
This lesson defines the term kleos, or fame and glory, and discusses the importance of kleos in Homer's the Iliad through the examples of Achilles, Nestor, and Hector.
57. Andromache in The Iliad
Poor, doomed Andromache of Thebes, the wife of Prince Hector and the mother of Astyanax, has a small but vital and tragic role in the epic poem by Homer, 'The Iliad'. Read on to learn more.
58. The Iliad Setting
'The Iliad' is a narrative poem by Homer. It was written about 800 BCE, but the story is set several hundred years earlier, around 1250 BCE. The action of the poem is narrowly limited to three locations covering about 50 days. In this lesson we'll examine these three settings.
59. How to Read The Iliad
The Iliad is one of the best-known and best-loved works of ancient literature. This lesson discusses its form and content, and ways to get to grips with what is strange and familiar about it.
60. Divine Intervention in The Iliad
This lesson discusses divine intervention in Homer's 'The Iliad'. Focus is placed on both good and bad interventions and how they shaped the plot of this epic poem.
61. Nestor in The Iliad
This lesson will explore the character of Nestor in Homer's 'The Iliad.' He might seem like a silly old man who tells stories at first, but it turns out he is really important to both the story and the characters of 'The Iliad.'
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Other chapters within the 10th Grade English: Help and Review course
- Text Analysis and Close Reading for 10th Grade: Help and Review
- Developing as a Reader and Writer in 10th Grade English: Help and Review
- Reading and Understanding in Various Media: Help and Review
- Literary Forms and Genres for 10th Grade: Help and Review
- Shakespeare for 10th Grade: Help and Review
- African American Writers: Help and Review
- British Fiction for 10th Grade: Help and Review
- American Prose for 10th Grade: Help and Review
- Introduction to Literary Criticism: Help and Review
- Drama for 10th Grade: Help and Review
- The Writing Process for 10th Grade: Help and Review
- Using Source Materials in 10th Grade English: Help and Review
- Conventions in 10th Grade Writing - Usage: Help and Review
- Elements of 10th Grade Grammar: Help and Review
- 10th Grade Grammar Usage: Help and Review
- Punctuation in 10th Grade Writing: Help and Review
- Strategies for Reading Literary Nonfiction
- Characteristics of Major Literary Movements