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- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the organs and cellular structures involved in animal reproduction and development
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- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Animal Reproduction and Development chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
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- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any animal reproduction and development question. They're here to help!
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- What do spermatogenesis and oogenesis mean?
- How do embryos and fetuses develop?
- What is the function of the placenta?
- What three germ layers form during gastrulation?
- How does amniotic fluid, the amnion and the yolk sac support embryos and fetuses?
- How do signaling molecules drive the cell differentiation process?
- What is fate mapping?
1. Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development
At this stage in life, you likely know where babies come from. However, did you know that some animals can make clones of themselves and reproduce sexually too? In this lesson, you'll learn more about sexual reproduction and early vertebrate development.
2. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm
In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.
3. Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs
Did you know that a human female already has all of the oocytes that she will make in her entire life before she is even born? In this lesson, you'll learn how the human body produces an ovum through the process of oogenesis. You'll also learn how polar bodies help to ensure that female gametes are of high quality even though they are not produced in high quantities.
4. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula
This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.
5. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.
6. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function
Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.
7. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac
From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.
8. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)
Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.
9. Spemann's Organizer: Controller of Cell Fate
Have you ever wondered how different parts of a developing embryo know what kind of tissue to become? What prevents two heads from developing on the same embryo, or for that matter, what ensures that a head develops at all? A small group of cells called Spemann's organizer determines the fates of the cells around them.
10. Concentration Gradients, Signaling Molecules & Inhibitors in Development
The discovery and characterization of Spemann's organizer was a significant achievement in the field of developmental biology, but this small piece of the dorsal lip is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to coordinating the differentiation of all of the various tissue types in a growing embryo. In this lesson, you'll learn about concentration gradients and how they can be used to create various combinations of signaling molecules in different parts of the embryo.
11. How Signaling Molecules Control Differentiation
From signaling molecules to transcription factors and gene expression, in this lesson you'll learn what it takes for a cell to differentiate. You'll also learn some of the ways a cell can make sense of different combinations of signaling molecules and how these combinations can be used to guide a cell through the process of differentiation.
12. How Fate Mapping Is Used to Track Cell Development
Over the years, scientists have developed several methods to label and track groups of cells as they develop. These types of experiments are called fate mapping studies. In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of fate mapping and see how technology has allowed scientists to improve fate mapping techniques.
13. Allotransplantation, Allografts & Xenografts
In this lesson, you'll discover the meaning of the term, allotransplantation, as well as what's involved in this medical process. You'll also explore allografts and xenografts in relation to transplantations.
14. Animal Asexual Reproduction
In school, everyone giggled when we learned about human reproduction because it involved a boy and a girl. We probably wouldn't hear the same laughter when talking about asexual reproduction. Keep reading to learn about this solo act.
15. Ectoderm Layer: Definition & Derivatives
Look in the mirror. What do you see? Skin? Hair? Eyes? All of these structures develop from the same embryonic tissue called the ectoderm. Keep watching to find out what other structures are derived from the ectoderm.
16. Sexual Reproduction: Definition & Overview
Biological systems use different forms of reproduction to accomplish different tasks. This article addresses sexual reproduction and its role in genetic variability.
17. What is Species Diversity? - Definition, Importance & Examples
Have you ever wondered how many species live on Earth? Earth is full of amazing creatures. In this lesson, you will learn about the importance of species diversity. At the end, test your knowledge with a quiz.
18. Thyroid Problems During & After Pregnancy
The thyroid gland is an organ in the body that is often affected by the changes that occur during, and after, pregnancy. This lesson will explain some of the problems that may arise, including symptoms and treatment options.
19. Do Animals Use Tools?
Do animals use tools? If so, how? Can all sorts of animals use tools? And what is a tool anyway? Here you will learn the answers to those questions and others.
20. Characteristics of Chordata Reproduction
Phylum Chordata includes an incredible variety of species that are found all over Earth. In this lesson, we'll look at the different methods for how these animals reproduce, some of which may surprise you!
21. Extraembryonic Membranes in Humans
This lesson explores extraembryonic membranes in humans. We'll discuss some basics of embryo anatomy, define extraembryonic membranes and their types, and look at the function of each type in detail.
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