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- Explain the process of spermatogenesis in the male reproductive system.
- Describe the process of oogenesis in the female reproductive system.
- Discuss how the morula and blastula form in early embryonic development.
- Understand how the embryo implants in the uterus and how the placenta forms.
- Describe the structure and function of the placenta.
- Discuss the functions of the amnion, amniotic fluid and the yolk sac.
- Learn how gastrulation results in a 3-layer structure known as the gastrula.
- Explain the importance of Spemann's organizer in embryonic development.
- Understand the roles of signaling molecules, concentration gradients and inhibitors in cell development.
- Describe how signaling molecules control cellular differentiation.
- Learn how scientists use fate mapping to track cell development.
1. Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development
At this stage in life, you likely know where babies come from. However, did you know that some animals can make clones of themselves and reproduce sexually too? In this lesson, you'll learn more about sexual reproduction and early vertebrate development.
2. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm
In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.
3. Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs
Did you know that a human female already has all of the oocytes that she will make in her entire life before she is even born? In this lesson, you'll learn how the human body produces an ovum through the process of oogenesis. You'll also learn how polar bodies help to ensure that female gametes are of high quality even though they are not produced in high quantities.
4. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula
This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.
5. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.
6. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function
Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.
7. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac
From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.
8. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)
Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.
9. Spemann's Organizer: Controller of Cell Fate
Have you ever wondered how different parts of a developing embryo know what kind of tissue to become? What prevents two heads from developing on the same embryo, or for that matter, what ensures that a head develops at all? A small group of cells called Spemann's organizer determines the fates of the cells around them.
10. Concentration Gradients, Signaling Molecules & Inhibitors in Development
The discovery and characterization of Spemann's organizer was a significant achievement in the field of developmental biology, but this small piece of the dorsal lip is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to coordinating the differentiation of all of the various tissue types in a growing embryo. In this lesson, you'll learn about concentration gradients and how they can be used to create various combinations of signaling molecules in different parts of the embryo.
11. How Signaling Molecules Control Differentiation
From signaling molecules to transcription factors and gene expression, in this lesson you'll learn what it takes for a cell to differentiate. You'll also learn some of the ways a cell can make sense of different combinations of signaling molecules and how these combinations can be used to guide a cell through the process of differentiation.
12. How Fate Mapping Is Used to Track Cell Development
Over the years, scientists have developed several methods to label and track groups of cells as they develop. These types of experiments are called fate mapping studies. In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of fate mapping and see how technology has allowed scientists to improve fate mapping techniques.
13. Female Gamete: Production & Definition
Female gametes are one of two sex cells needed to create a new organism. This lesson covers what a female gamete is, how it's formed, and its role during reproduction.
14. Reproductive Isolation: Definition, Types & Examples
Typically, animals can only mate within their own species. In this lesson, you will learn about reproductive isolation, or when two species are unable to reproduce, including types and examples of isolation.
15. Signaling Molecules: Definition & Concept
How do cells know which processes and activities to perform? In this lesson, you will learn about the ways that cells receive information and how that information gets translated into a message that the cell can understand.
16. Teratogen in Pregnancy: Definition, Exposure & Examples
Learn what a teratogen in pregnancy is, relevant time lines during gestation, the most common examples, their effects on developing fetuses, and ways to avoid them.
17. The Life Cycle of a Ladybug: Stages & Explanation
In this lesson, we'll learn about the life cycle of a familiar garden creature, the ladybug. Ladybugs go through an incredible transformation with four life stages. Let's explore the life cycle of this familiar little beetle.
18. Praying Mantis: Facts & Life Cycle
One of the coolest members of the insect family is the praying mantis: a carnivorous and sometimes cannibalistic critter. In this lesson learn about the fascinating process that is the praying mantis life cycle.
19. The 10% Energy Rule in a Food Chain
Have you ever heard of the 10% Rule in ecology? Do you know what it means? In this lesson, you will learn all about this rule and how it applies to every natural energy pyramid and food chain.
20. Cnidarians Circulatory System
A circulatory system helps with the exchange of gases and nutrients in an animal's body. But what if you don't have a circulatory system? In this lesson learn how cnidarians exchange substances even without a complex internal circulation system.
21. Phylum Cnidaria Body Symmetry
In this lesson, we'll explore a group of organisms known as cnidarians. We'll learn about their general features and also examine what type of symmetry they have.
22. Cephalopod Circulatory System
In this lesson, we will discuss the structure and function of the cephalopod circulatory system. Cephalopods are marine invertebrate animals including octopuses, squid, cuttlefish, and nautiloids.
23. Desert Animal Adaptations
Desert animals have adapted to living in an extreme environment (with higher temperatures and dryness) through the use of both physical and behavior specializations. Read this lesson to learn how these specializations help them survive.
24. Tropical Rainforest Animal Adaptations
Tropical rainforests present challenging conditions to the animals that live there. In this lesson, we'll explore several of the diverse adaptations animals have developed in order to survive and thrive in the tropical rainforest.
25. Grassland Animal Adaptations
Across the planet, there are numerous grasslands, each with its own unique animal inhabitants. How do the animals in these grassland environments survive and adapt? In this lesson, we'll explore grassland animal adaptations, the behavioral and physiological traits that help animals survive.
26. Non-Membrane Bound Organelles: Definition & Examples
What do we mean when we say one organelle is membrane-bound and another isn't? And what creates this distinction anyway? Complete this lesson to learn the answers to this and more!
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