About This Chapter
Who's it for?
This unit of our High School Biology Homeschool course will benefit any student who is trying to learn about anatomical and physiological aspects of how animals reproduce. There is no faster or easier way to learn about animal reproduction and development. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who require an efficient, self-paced course of study to learn animal reproduction and development, how male and female reproductive systems function, embryonic development, cell development, and differentiation.
- Homeschool parents looking to spend less time preparing lessons and more time teaching.
- Homeschool parents who need a biology curriculum that appeals to multiple learning types (visual or auditory).
- Gifted students and students with learning differences.
How it works:
- Students watch a short, fun video lesson that covers a specific unit topic.
- Students and parents can refer to the video transcripts to reinforce learning.
- Short quizzes and an animal reproduction and development unit exam confirm understanding or identify any topics that require review.
Animal Reproduction and Development Unit Objectives:
- Explain the process of spermatogenesis.
- Explore the process of oogenesis.
- State the function and purpose of the morula and blastula in early embryonic development.
- Describe the process by which the embryo implants and the placenta forms.
- Understand the structure and function of the placenta and the fetus.
- State the role and purpose of amniotic fluid, the amnion, and the yolk sac.
- Describe gastrulation and the three germ layers (ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm).
- Define Spemann's Organizer, and explain how it controls the fate of cells.
- Discuss concentration gradients, signaling molecules, and inhibitors in development.
- Indicate how signaling molecules control differentiation.
- Explain how cell development is tracked using fate mapping.
1. Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development
At this stage in life, you likely know where babies come from. However, did you know that some animals can make clones of themselves and reproduce sexually too? In this lesson, you'll learn more about sexual reproduction and early vertebrate development.
2. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm
In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.
3. Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs
Did you know that a human female already has all of the oocytes that she will make in her entire life before she is even born? In this lesson, you'll learn how the human body produces an ovum through the process of oogenesis. You'll also learn how polar bodies help to ensure that female gametes are of high quality even though they are not produced in high quantities.
4. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula
This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.
5. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.
6. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function
Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.
7. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac
From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.
8. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)
Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.
9. Spemann's Organizer: Controller of Cell Fate
Have you ever wondered how different parts of a developing embryo know what kind of tissue to become? What prevents two heads from developing on the same embryo, or for that matter, what ensures that a head develops at all? A small group of cells called Spemann's organizer determines the fates of the cells around them.
10. Concentration Gradients, Signaling Molecules & Inhibitors in Development
The discovery and characterization of Spemann's organizer was a significant achievement in the field of developmental biology, but this small piece of the dorsal lip is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to coordinating the differentiation of all of the various tissue types in a growing embryo. In this lesson, you'll learn about concentration gradients and how they can be used to create various combinations of signaling molecules in different parts of the embryo.
11. How Signaling Molecules Control Differentiation
From signaling molecules to transcription factors and gene expression, in this lesson you'll learn what it takes for a cell to differentiate. You'll also learn some of the ways a cell can make sense of different combinations of signaling molecules and how these combinations can be used to guide a cell through the process of differentiation.
12. How Fate Mapping Is Used to Track Cell Development
Over the years, scientists have developed several methods to label and track groups of cells as they develop. These types of experiments are called fate mapping studies. In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of fate mapping and see how technology has allowed scientists to improve fate mapping techniques.
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Other chapters within the High School Biology: Homeschool Curriculum course
- Science Vocabulary & Basics: Homeschool Currilum
- Science Lab Skills: Homeschool Curriculum
- Inorganic Chemistry Review: Homeschool Curriculum
- Organic Chemistry Introduction: Homeschool Curriculum
- Functions & Reactions of Enzymes: Homeschool Curriculum
- Cell Biology: Homeschool Curriculum
- Requirements of Biological Systems: Homeschool Curriculum
- Cell Communication: Homeschool Curriculum
- Metabolic Biochemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- Cell Division: Homeschool Curriculum
- Nucleic Acids: Homeschool Curriculum
- DNA Replication: Homeschool Curriculum
- Transcription & Translation: Homeschool Curriculum
- Principles of Heredity: Homeschool Curriculum
- Genetic Mutations: Homeschool Curriculum
- DNA Technology & Genomics: Homeschool Curriculum
- Bacterial Biology: Homeschool Curriculum
- Introduction to Viruses: Homeschool Curriculum
- The Origin of the Universe: Homeschool Curriculum
- Geologic Time: Homeschool Curriculum
- Evolution Overview: Homeschool Curriculum
- The Classification of Organisms: Homeschool Curriculum
- Plant Biology: Homeschool Curriculum
- Plant Reproduction & Growth: Homeschool Curriculum
- Introduction to Fungi: Homeschool Curriculum
- Introduction to Invertebrates: Homeschool Curriculum
- Introduction to Vertebrates: Homeschool Curriculum
- The Circulatory & Respiratory Systems: Homeschool Curriculum
- The Immune & Endocrine Systems: Homeschool Curriculum
- Human Reproductive Systems: Homeschool Curriculum
- Ecology & the Environment: Homeschool Curriculum
- The Environmental Impact of Humans: Homeschool Curriculum
- Animal Behavior: Homeschool Curriculum
- Molecular Biology Lab Techniques: Homeschool Curriculum
- Analyzing Scientific Data: Homeschool Curriculum