About This Chapter
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- Start at the beginning, or identify the topics that you need help with.
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- Verify you're ready by completing the Anthropology and Ancient History chapter exam.
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Students will review:
In this chapter, you'll learn the answers to questions including:
- What are some of the techniques and tools used in archaeology?
- How do historic and prehistoric methodologies differ?
- What are some of the unique features of Paleolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic archaeology?
- Why is the Fertile Crescent known as the 'Cradle of Civilization'?
- How have human tools evolved over time?
- What are some of the unique features of Sumerian art and architecture?
- What advances in metallurgy occurred during the Iron and Bronze Ages?
- How did the alphabet evolve in ancient times?
1. Tools and Techniques Used in Archaeology
Today's lesson will explain the archaeological techniques of reconnaissance, survey, and excavation. In doing this, it will highlight the terms, artifacts, site mapping, pedestrian survey, and the different types of excavation.
2. Archaeological Methodology: Prehistoric and Historic Inquiry
This lesson will seek to explain the science of archaeological anthropology. In doing so, it will highlight the categories of prehistoric and historical archaeology, as well as define artifacts.
3. Historical Change: Causes and Effects
In this lesson, we will examine historical change. We will learn what factors contribute to historical change and see how historical change is perceived through different classifications.
4. What is Paleolithic Archaeology?
Today's lesson will seek to explain Paleolithic archaeology and its theories. In doing so, it will highlight the use of pebble tools as well as the nomadic hunter-gathering lifestyle of the Paleolithic man.
5. Understanding the Evolution of Human Tools
This lesson will seek to explain the use of tools during the Stone Ages. In doing this, it will highlight flake tools, Clovis points, Folsom points and the archaeological theories surrounding all three.
6. Stone Tool Industries of the Paleolithic Age
This lesson will explain the different stone industries of the Paleolithic Age. In doing so, it will highlight the Oldowan industry, the Acheulian industry, the Clactonian industry, and the Mousterian industry and their corresponding tools.
7. An Overview of Mesolithic Archaeology
This lesson will seek to explain archaeological theories concerning the Mesolithic Age. In doing so, it will highlight microliths, the nomadic lifestyle, the hunter-gatherer lifestyle, and the use of radioactive carbon dating.
8. Understanding Neolithic Archaeology
This lesson will explain archaeology's understanding of the Neolithic Age. In doing so, it will highlight the use of polished stone, the onset of agriculture, the Neolithic Revolution, and social stratification.
9. The Fertile Crescent: Cradle of Civilization
Complex civilization wasn't always the norm. In this lesson, we are going to check out the origins of civilization as we know it, and see where, when, and how this new system of living first began.
10. Sumerian Art and Architecture
This lesson explores the artwork of one of the earliest civilizations: the Sumerians. Sumerians created beautiful works of art that inspired other cultures for centuries after their decline.
11. Heirs of the Sumerians: Babylonians, Hittites, Hurrians and Assyrians
This lecture covers the history of Mesopotamia from the disintegration of the Sumerian Empire to the great Bronze Age collapse. We'll explore the destructive force of the Elamites and the Hittites as well as the imperial ambitions of the Babylonians, the Mittani and the Assyrians.
12. Hammurabi's Code: The Advent of Law, Prerequisites and Implications
This lecture discusses the need for law and the benefits of a judicial system. Next, it reviews the history of early law codes, like those of Ur-Nammu and Hammurabi. Finally, we look at the implications of law for kings.
13. The Hebrews and Their Beliefs
This lesson covers the Hebrews and their beliefs. We look at the core tenets of Judaism and explore some of the stories from the Torah. Finally, we see how the Hebrews' history of oppression impacted their religion and the world today.
14. Ancient Egypt in the Bronze Age
This lecture first compares the natural features of the Nile valley to those of Mesopotamia, enumerating the advantages that geography offered the Egyptians. This is followed by a brief discussion of why Egyptian material culture survives while so much of Mesopotamian culture has been lost. The lecture ends with a a whirlwind tour through 3,000 years of Egyptian history broken up into traditional historical periods.
15. Iron vs. Bronze: History of Metallurgy
This lecture explores the transition from the bronze age to the iron age. The difficulties of working with iron are enumerated. The properties of iron and steel are compared to those of bronze. Finally the implications for this transition on civilization are considered.
16. Iron Age Empires: Neo-Babylonian, Neo-Assyrian and Persian Empires
This lesson is a survey of the three empires that emerged after the Bronze Age collapse. Parts of the survey are viewed from the perspective of the Israelites, who found themselves the playthings of powerful empires. The lecture focuses on a few specific rulers and their impact on their empires. It also traces patterns of imperial tactics throughout this period and region.
17. History of the Alphabet: From Cuneiform to Greek Writing
This lecture follows the development of writing, from the pictographs of proto-cuneiform to the symbolic phonemes of cuneiform and hieroglyphics. Then from the abjads of the Phoenecians, Minoans, Hebrews and Arabs to the complete alphabets of the Greeks. It explores the limitations and strengths of each development and draws modern parallels.
18. What Do Archaeologists Study? - Definition & Types
Learn about the field of archaeology, all of its branches, and how it has helped us to learn and understand more about the human past. After the lesson, take the quiz and see what you've learned.
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