About This Chapter
Who's It For?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering antibiotics and vaccines material will benefit from the lessons in this chapter. There is no faster or easier way to learn about antibiotics and vaccines. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding antibiotics and vaccines
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about antibiotics and vaccines
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How It Works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the Antibiotics & Vaccines chapter exam.
Why It Works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Antibiotics & Vaccines chapter exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any question about antibiotics or vaccines. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students Will Review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in an antibiotics and vaccines unit of a standard immunology course. Topics covered include:
- Overview of vaccines
- Spectrum of activity, classes and mechanism of action of antibiotics
- How certain bacteria such as MRSA are able to resist penicillin
- Types and function of antifungal and antiviral drugs
- How medications work against the influenza virus and HIV
- Consequences of antibiotic use and overuse
1. Antibiotics and Vaccines
Do you know why children must get regularly vaccinated? Have you ever wondered how an antibiotic works and why they are so widely prescribed? If so, this lesson will help you to understand how changes in medicine have almost eliminated several deadly diseases and added decades to the average person's lifespan.
2. Types of Antibiotics: Bactericidal vs.Bacteriostatic & Narrow Spectrum vs. Broad Spectrum
If someone asked you what antibiotics do, you'd probably say they kill bacteria. But that's not always the case. In this lesson, learn about the general types of antibiotics and the differences between them.
3. Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Drugs: Selective Toxicity, Classes and Mechanisms
How can antibiotics kill bacteria but not harm our own cells? In this lesson, learn about the selective toxicity of antibiotics and antimicrobial drugs and some basic mechanisms for their activity.
4. How Does Penicillin Work? - Discovery, Mechanism & Properties
In this lesson, you will learn about an accidental discovery that changed human history: the discovery of the antibiotic penicillin. You will also learn how it works and why it's most effective against Gram-positive bacteria.
5. Penicillin Resistance: How Penicillin-Resistant Bacteria Avoid Destruction
In the battle between humans and bacteria, antibiotics are one of our most important weapons. But, bacteria can fight back! In this lesson, learn about the strategies that some bacteria use in order to avoid being killed by penicillin.
6. Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis: Bacitracin, Vancomycin & Mycobacteria-specific Drugs
Cell walls make good targets for antibiotics because bacteria need them for survival and our cells don't even have them! In this lesson, learn how different types of antibiotics kill bacteria by preventing them from making their cell walls.
7. Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis: How Antibiotics Target the Bacterial Ribosome
Proteins carry out tons of incredibly important functions within cells. In this lesson, we will learn how antibiotics can fight bacteria by shutting down the ribosome, the protein synthesis factory of the cell.
8. Antimicrobial Peptides: Definition and Use Against Microbes
If you could poke holes in a bacterium's membrane, would it be like a water balloon, leaking all over the place until it died? In this lesson, learn how short proteins called peptides can specifically damage microbial plasma membranes.
9. Inhibitors of DNA/RNA Synthesis: How Rifamycins and Quinolones Kill Bacteria
If you were a cell, you wouldn't get very far in life without synthesizing the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In this lesson, learn how rifamycins and quinolones kill bacteria by inhibiting these important processes.
10. Inhibitors of Metabolite Synthesis: How Sulfa Drugs Work
In our weight-conscious society today, there's a lot of talk about metabolism and how to speed it up. In this lesson, learn what metabolism really is and how antibiotics can work together to inhibit the bacterial metabolism.
11. Antifungal Drugs: Major Types & Functions
Even though the word fungus brings up nasty images in our minds, many fungi are totally harmless. Still, some fungi can cause dangerous infections. In this lesson, learn about antifungal drugs and how they can specifically kill fungi, even though our own cells are similar to fungal cells in many ways.
12. Antiviral Drugs: Treatments for Flu & Other Common Viruses
You may have heard that viruses are not even considered to be alive, but they sure can cause a lot of damage when they infect us! Learn how antiviral drugs can selectively inhibit viruses even though they use our own cellular machinery to reproduce.
13. Antiretroviral Drugs: How HIV Medications Work
In recent years, HIV infection no longer means certain death from AIDS. This is because there are many effective drugs to fight HIV. In this lesson, see how these antiretroviral drugs work, and why they must always be used in combination instead of alone.
14. Antiparasitic Drugs: Types and Mechanisms
Parasites can cause nasty infections, but they are actually very similar to our own cells. In this lesson, learn about the types of drugs commonly used to eradicate eukaryotic pathogens.
15. Antibiotic Resistance: Definition, Types & Problems
If you have a bad bacterial infection, what do you do? Go to the doctor and get antibiotics, of course. But, what if antibiotics don't work anymore because the bacteria are antibiotic-resistant? In this lesson, learn how bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics and why this is such a big problem.
16. MRSA and Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens
We've learned a lot about different kinds of antibiotics and how they work. But there are some pathogens that virtually no antibiotics work against. In this lesson, we learn about two of these pathogens, and how they threaten to take us back to a pre-antibiotic era.
17. Antibiotic Effectiveness: MICs, Time- and Concentration-Dependent Antibiotics
With so many antibiotics available, not to mention so much antibiotic resistance in bacteria, how is a doctor supposed to choose which drug to prescribe? In this lesson, learn about tests to determine which antibiotics will be most effective against a microbe.
18. Opportunistic Infections from Antibiotic Usage: Definition & Examples
In this chapter, we've learned about all kinds of antibiotics and how great they are at curing bacterial infections. However, there is also a bad side to antibiotic treatment. In this lesson, learn how antibiotics can actually cause opportunistic infections.
19. What is Amoxicillin? - Uses & Side Effects
This lesson explains amoxicillin. We will look at the various infections and uses related to amoxicillin along with the common and serious side effects seen with amoxicillin use.
20. Ampicillin: Uses & Side Effects
This lesson goes into detail about the antibiotic ampicillin. How it works, what it is used to treat, and possible side effects will be covered in this lesson.
21. Variables Affecting Success Rates of Vaccines
Vaccines can help your body learn how to fight infection and disease. However, there are certain factors that affect how effective that vaccine will be. In this lesson, we'll discuss what might influence the success rate of a vaccine and why.
22. Effects of Compromised Immune System
Your immune system helps keep you healthy by protecting you from all sorts of diseases and other microscopic dangers. But when your immune system doesn't function properly, it has a hard time doing its job, and you're likely to get very sick.
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