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Ch 6: Antibiotics & Vaccines

About This Chapter

The Antibiotics & Vaccines chapter of this Immunology: Help & Review course is the simplest way to master antibiotics and vaccines. This chapter uses simple and fun videos that are about five minutes long, plus lesson quizzes and a chapter exam to ensure you learn the essentials of antibiotics and vaccines.

Who's It For?

Anyone who needs help learning or mastering antibiotics and vaccines material will benefit from the lessons in this chapter. There is no faster or easier way to learn about antibiotics and vaccines. Among those who would benefit are:

  • Students who have fallen behind in understanding antibiotics and vaccines
  • Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
  • Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
  • Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
  • Students who need an efficient way to learn about antibiotics and vaccines
  • Students who struggle to understand their teachers
  • Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources

How It Works:

  • Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
  • Press play and watch the video lesson.
  • Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
  • Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
  • Verify you're ready by completing the Antibiotics & Vaccines chapter exam.

Why It Works:

  • Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
  • Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
  • Be Ready on Test Day: Use the Antibiotics & Vaccines chapter exam to be prepared.
  • Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any question about antibiotics or vaccines. They're here to help!
  • Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.

Students Will Review:

This chapter helps students review the concepts in an antibiotics and vaccines unit of a standard immunology course. Topics covered include:

  • Overview of vaccines
  • Spectrum of activity, classes and mechanism of action of antibiotics
  • How certain bacteria such as MRSA are able to resist penicillin
  • Types and function of antifungal and antiviral drugs
  • How medications work against the influenza virus and HIV
  • Consequences of antibiotic use and overuse

22 Lessons in Chapter 6: Antibiotics & Vaccines
Test your knowledge with a 30-question chapter practice test
Antibiotics and Vaccines

1. Antibiotics and Vaccines

Antibiotics and vaccines have a great contribution to the increase in life expectancy over time. Learn more about the history of antibiotics and vaccines, and how different types of vaccines are developed.

Types of Antibiotics: Bactericidal vs. Bacteriostatic & Narrow Spectrum vs. Broad Spectrum

2. Types of Antibiotics: Bactericidal vs. Bacteriostatic & Narrow Spectrum vs. Broad Spectrum

Antibiotics are drugs taken to kill and slow the growth of bacteria. Discover the differences between bactericidal, bacteriostatic, narrow-spectrum, and broad-spectrum antibiotics.

Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Drugs: Selective Toxicity, Classes and Mechanisms

3. Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Drugs: Selective Toxicity, Classes and Mechanisms

Antimicrobial drugs, including antibiotics, target harmful microbes without killing other cells, which is called selective toxicity. Learn the major classes and mechanisms of antimicrobial drugs, and discover how they are able to deliver selective toxicity to harmful cells while leaving good cells alone.

How Does Penicillin Work? - Discovery, Mechanism & Properties

4. How Does Penicillin Work? - Discovery, Mechanism & Properties

Penicillin is a type of mold that produces antibiotics. Find out how penicillin was discovered and learn about its mechanism, properties, and spectrum of activity.

Penicillin Resistance: How Penicillin-Resistant Bacteria Avoid Destruction

5. Penicillin Resistance: How Penicillin-Resistant Bacteria Avoid Destruction

Penicillin-resistant bacteria use many mechanisms to avoid destruction by penicillin. Learn about these mechanisms (restrict transport, modify target molecules, and beta lactamases) and find out how scientists are creating drugs to resist penicillin resistance.

Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis: Bacitracin, Vancomycin & Mycobacteria-specific Drugs

6. Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis: Bacitracin, Vancomycin & Mycobacteria-specific Drugs

The bacterial cell wall is a web-like, inflexible structure that provides a layer of protection around a bacterial cell. Learn about bacterial cell walls and explore the inhibitors of cell wall synthesis, including bacitracin, vancomycin, and mycobacteria-specific drugs. Understand the inhibition of peptidoglycan synthesis, and recognize why penicillin is significant.

Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis: How Antibiotics Target the Bacterial Ribosome

7. Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis: How Antibiotics Target the Bacterial Ribosome

Antibiotics target the bacterial ribosome and inhibit protein synthesis to fight against bacterial infections. In this lesson, explore how this process occurs, including targeting the bacterial 70S ribosome, the antibiotics that inhibit ribosomes, and some shared antibiotic characteristics.

Antimicrobial Peptides: Definition and Use Against Microbes

8. Antimicrobial Peptides: Definition and Use Against Microbes

Peptides are found in various organisms and form an integral part of the immune system. Learn more about the definition of the natural defense mechanism of organisms against microbes using the selective toxicity of antimicrobial peptides, as well as peptide antibiotics.

Inhibitors of DNA/RNA Synthesis: How Rifamycins and Quinolones Kill Bacteria

9. Inhibitors of DNA/RNA Synthesis: How Rifamycins and Quinolones Kill Bacteria

The two primary inhibitors of DNA and RNA synthesis are rifamycins and quinolones. Discover how the antibodies known as rifamycins, quinolones, and fluoroquinolones kill bacteria in this lesson.

Inhibitors of Metabolite Synthesis: How Sulfa Drugs Work

10. Inhibitors of Metabolite Synthesis: How Sulfa Drugs Work

Metabolism refers to the synthesis of all of the chemical reactions in an organism that enable it to survive, but which can be inhibited by sulfa drugs and trimethoprim, which are synthetic, broad-spectrum, bacteriostatic antibiotics. Learn about metabolism and discover the synergistic effects of the inhibitors of metabolite synthesis like sulfa drugs and trimethoprim.

Antifungal Drugs: Major Types & Functions

11. Antifungal Drugs: Major Types & Functions

Antifungal drugs treat infections by killing or stopping the growth of fungi in the body. Learn the major types of antifungals and how they function, and explore how they target a fungus's plasma membrane, cell wall, nucleic acid synthesis, or microtubules.

Antiviral Drugs: Treatments for Flu & Other Common Viruses

12. Antiviral Drugs: Treatments for Flu & Other Common Viruses

Antiviral drugs are a form of medicine meant to treat contagious viruses such as the flu, herpes and hepatitis. Explore how antiviral drugs work to stop viruses by inhibiting DNA/RNA synthesis, inhibiting viral entry and exit, and inhibiting their spread in and outside the body.

Antiretroviral Drugs: How HIV Medications Work

13. Antiretroviral Drugs: How HIV Medications Work

Antiretroviral drugs are therapies used to treat the human immunodeficiency virus, or HIV, which causes AIDS. Learn how antiretroviral drugs work, and explore the roles of inhibitors, including entry/fusion, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and protease, how antiretroviral drugs are used to treat infections and discover why these drugs must be taken in combination with other drugs.

Antiparasitic Drugs: Types and Mechanisms

14. Antiparasitic Drugs: Types and Mechanisms

Antiparasitic drugs utilize different mechanisms and medical technology to cure diseases brought about by parasites. Learn about the different types such as antimalarial, antiprotozoan, and antihelminthic drugs and how they work.

Antibiotic Resistance: Definition, Types & Problems

15. Antibiotic Resistance: Definition, Types & Problems

Antibiotic resistance occurs when organisms like bacteria and fungi can withstand the drugs designed to counteract them. Discover the definition and types of antibiotic resistance, and then explore the antibiotic resistance strategies and problems they present.

MRSA and Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens

16. MRSA and Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens

Scientists have developed antibiotic treatments that have saved lives, but an unintended consequence has been bacteria evolving resistance to antibiotics. This lesson delves into this process and examines two antibiotic-resistant pathogens and the attempts to overcome them.

Antibiotic Effectiveness: MICs, Time- and Concentration-Dependent Antibiotics

17. Antibiotic Effectiveness: MICs, Time- and Concentration-Dependent Antibiotics

Before an antibiotic can be approved for patient use, scientists must complete a series of tests to determine the proper conditions necessary to ensure antibiotic effectiveness for specific microbes. This lesson will offer information about minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and time-dependent antibiotics vs. concentration-dependent antibiotics. Furthermore, topics such as diffusion tests, broth dilution tests, drug synergy, and antagonism will also be addressed.

Opportunistic Infections from Antibiotic Usage: Definition & Examples

18. Opportunistic Infections from Antibiotic Usage: Definition & Examples

The body is made up of beneficial bacteria, but opportunistic infections can occur when this good bacteria is weakened by antibiotic usage. This lesson examines two examples of opportunistic infection and the benefits of probiotics.

What is Amoxicillin? - Uses & Side Effects

19. What is Amoxicillin? - Uses & Side Effects

This lesson explains amoxicillin. We will look at the various infections and uses related to amoxicillin along with the common and serious side effects seen with amoxicillin use.

Ampicillin: Uses & Side Effects

20. Ampicillin: Uses & Side Effects

This lesson goes into detail about the antibiotic ampicillin. How it works, what it is used to treat, and possible side effects will be covered in this lesson.

Variables Affecting Success Rates of Vaccines

21. Variables Affecting Success Rates of Vaccines

Vaccines save lives by training the body to defend against diseases and viruses through the development of antibodies that attack infected cells, their effectiveness is dependent on many factors. Learn about the variables involved in vaccine success rates, including general health and the method and timing of administration.

Effects of Compromised Immune System

22. Effects of Compromised Immune System

The immune system defends the body against infections and harmful substances. Explore the effects of a compromised immune system, understand immunodeficiency, and learn about autoimmune diseases that may affect the body.

Chapter Practice Exam
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Practice Final Exam
Test your knowledge of the entire course with a 50 question practice final exam.
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