About This Chapter
Antimicrobial Drugs Overview - Chapter Summary
If you need to review basic information about antimicrobial drugs, you're in the right place. Inside this chapter, you'll find a series of informative and easy-to-understand lessons that discuss various types of antibiotics and their uses. You'll learn about concepts like antibiotic resistance, selective toxicity, opportunistic infections and much more. Take the accompanying self-assessment quizzes to reinforce your comprehension of the material. These resources can be accessed whenever you have free time, and our instructors are happy to assist you if you have any questions. Reviewing this chapter can help you:
- Compare different types of antibiotics
- Recognize antibiotic and antimicrobial drug toxicities, mechanisms and classes
- Differentiate between antifungal, antiviral, antiretroviral and antiparasitic drugs
- Define the concepts of antibiotic resistance and penicillin resistance
- Analyze multi-drug resistant pathogens and MRSA
- Assess the effectiveness of antibiotics
- Evaluate examples of opportunistic infections caused by antibiotic usage
- Discuss the properties and mechanisms of penicillin
- Identify inhibitors of cell wall, protein, DNA/RNA and metabolite synthesis
- Explain how antimicrobial peptides are used against microbes
1. Types of Antibiotics: Bactericidal vs.Bacteriostatic & Narrow Spectrum vs. Broad Spectrum
If someone asked you what antibiotics do, you'd probably say they kill bacteria. But that's not always the case. In this lesson, learn about the general types of antibiotics and the differences between them.
2. Antibiotics and Antimicrobial Drugs: Selective Toxicity, Classes and Mechanisms
How can antibiotics kill bacteria but not harm our own cells? In this lesson, learn about the selective toxicity of antibiotics and antimicrobial drugs and some basic mechanisms for their activity.
3. Antifungal Drugs: Major Types & Functions
Even though the word fungus brings up nasty images in our minds, many fungi are totally harmless. Still, some fungi can cause dangerous infections. In this lesson, learn about antifungal drugs and how they can specifically kill fungi, even though our own cells are similar to fungal cells in many ways.
4. Antiviral Drugs: Treatments for Flu & Other Common Viruses
You may have heard that viruses are not even considered to be alive, but they sure can cause a lot of damage when they infect us! Learn how antiviral drugs can selectively inhibit viruses even though they use our own cellular machinery to reproduce.
5. Antiretroviral Drugs: How HIV Medications Work
In recent years, HIV infection no longer means certain death from AIDS. This is because there are many effective drugs to fight HIV. In this lesson, see how these antiretroviral drugs work, and why they must always be used in combination instead of alone.
6. Antiparasitic Drugs: Types and Mechanisms
Parasites can cause nasty infections, but they are actually very similar to our own cells. In this lesson, learn about the types of drugs commonly used to eradicate eukaryotic pathogens.
7. Antibiotic Resistance: Definition, Types & Problems
If you have a bad bacterial infection, what do you do? Go to the doctor and get antibiotics, of course. But, what if antibiotics don't work anymore because the bacteria are antibiotic-resistant? In this lesson, learn how bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics and why this is such a big problem.
8. MRSA and Multi-Drug Resistant Pathogens
We've learned a lot about different kinds of antibiotics and how they work. But there are some pathogens that virtually no antibiotics work against. In this lesson, we learn about two of these pathogens, and how they threaten to take us back to a pre-antibiotic era.
9. Antibiotic Effectiveness: MICs, Time- and Concentration-Dependent Antibiotics
With so many antibiotics available, not to mention so much antibiotic resistance in bacteria, how is a doctor supposed to choose which drug to prescribe? In this lesson, learn about tests to determine which antibiotics will be most effective against a microbe.
10. Opportunistic Infections from Antibiotic Usage: Definition & Examples
In this chapter, we've learned about all kinds of antibiotics and how great they are at curing bacterial infections. However, there is also a bad side to antibiotic treatment. In this lesson, learn how antibiotics can actually cause opportunistic infections.
11. How Does Penicillin Work? - Discovery, Mechanism & Properties
In this lesson, you will learn about an accidental discovery that changed human history: the discovery of the antibiotic penicillin. You will also learn how it works and why it's most effective against Gram-positive bacteria.
12. Penicillin Resistance: How Penicillin-Resistant Bacteria Avoid Destruction
In the battle between humans and bacteria, antibiotics are one of our most important weapons. But, bacteria can fight back! In this lesson, learn about the strategies that some bacteria use in order to avoid being killed by penicillin.
13. Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis: Bacitracin, Vancomycin & Mycobacteria-specific Drugs
Cell walls make good targets for antibiotics because bacteria need them for survival and our cells don't even have them! In this lesson, learn how different types of antibiotics kill bacteria by preventing them from making their cell walls.
14. Inhibitors of Protein Synthesis: How Antibiotics Target the Bacterial Ribosome
Proteins carry out tons of incredibly important functions within cells. In this lesson, we will learn how antibiotics can fight bacteria by shutting down the ribosome, the protein synthesis factory of the cell.
15. Antimicrobial Peptides: Definition and Use Against Microbes
If you could poke holes in a bacterium's membrane, would it be like a water balloon, leaking all over the place until it died? In this lesson, learn how short proteins called peptides can specifically damage microbial plasma membranes.
16. Inhibitors of DNA/RNA Synthesis: How Rifamycins and Quinolones Kill Bacteria
If you were a cell, you wouldn't get very far in life without synthesizing the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. In this lesson, learn how rifamycins and quinolones kill bacteria by inhibiting these important processes.
17. Inhibitors of Metabolite Synthesis: How Sulfa Drugs Work
In our weight-conscious society today, there's a lot of talk about metabolism and how to speed it up. In this lesson, learn what metabolism really is and how antibiotics can work together to inhibit the bacterial metabolism.
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Other chapters within the UExcel Microbiology: Study Guide & Test Prep course
- Early History of Microbiology
- Fundamentals of Microbiology
- Microbiology Laboratory Procedures
- Understanding Genetics & DNA
- Understanding Metabolism
- Bacterial Biology
- Understanding Diseases
- Protozoan Diseases
- Understanding Viruses
- Overview of DNA Viruses
- Overview of RNA Viruses
- Overview of Fungal Infections
- Illnesses & Infections of the GI Tract
- Overview of Bacterial STDs
- Understanding Blood-Borne Bacterial Diseases
- Respiratory Bacterial Infections
- Bacterial Skin and Wound Infections
- Immunology Basics
- Structure & Function of the Immune System
- Overview of Antigens
- Disorders of the Immune System
- Serological & Diagnostic Reactions
- Sterilization & Antiseptic Methods
- Chemical Methods of Microbial Control
- Effectiveness of Antiseptics & Disinfectants
- Microbiology & the Environment
- Food & Industrial Microbiology Overview
- UExcel Microbiology Flashcards