About This Chapter
Who's it for?
Anyone who needs help learning or mastering AP Biology material will benefit from taking this course. There is no faster or easier way to learn AP Biology. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who have fallen behind in understanding the anatomy and physiology of the male and female reproductive systems
- Students who struggle with learning disabilities or learning differences, including autism and ADHD
- Students who prefer multiple ways of learning science (visual or auditory)
- Students who have missed class time and need to catch up
- Students who need an efficient way to learn about human reproductive systems
- Students who struggle to understand their teachers
- Students who attend schools without extra science learning resources
How it works:
- Find videos in our course that cover what you need to learn or review.
- Press play and watch the video lesson.
- Refer to the video transcripts to reinforce your learning.
- Test your understanding of each lesson with short quizzes.
- Verify you're ready by completing the anatomy and physiology of reproductive systems chapter exam.
Why it works:
- Study Efficiently: Skip what you know, review what you don't.
- Retain What You Learn: Engaging animations and real-life examples make topics easy to grasp.
- Be Ready on Test Day: Use the anatomy and physiology of reproductive systems exam to be prepared.
- Get Extra Support: Ask our subject-matter experts any reproductive system question. They're here to help!
- Study With Flexibility: Watch videos on any web-ready device.
Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in an anatomy and physiology of reproductive systems laboratory unit of a standard AP Biology course. Topics covered include:
- Anatomy and function of the male reproductive system
- Male reproductive hormones
- Anatomy and function of the female reproductive system
- The ovarian and uterine cycles
- How the female brain, ovaries and uterus coordinate
1. Male Reproductive System: Functions, Organs & Anatomy
The male reproductive system includes various structures and pathways to transport sperm. Learn about the anatomy, organs, and functions of the male reproductive system.
2. Male Reproductive System: Accessory Gland Functions
Ninety-five percent of semen is made from secretions from the accessory glands. Learn about the male reproductive system, the difference between sperm and semen, and the functions of the accessory glands (seminal vesicles, prostate, & bulbourethral).
3. Testicular Anatomy: Structure, Terms & Diagrams
The testes are the male reproductive organs where spermatogenesis and hormone production occur. Learn about testicular anatomy, the functions of the testes, what takes place in between the seminiferous tubules, and the importance of the testes in human reproduction.
4. Male Reproductive System: External Anatomy
The external anatomy of the male reproductive system includes the penis, scrotum, and testes, which are designed to work in unison to impregnate females of the same species. Take a closer look at the structures and functions of the human penis, scrotum, and testes.
5. Sperm's Journey from the Testes to Urethral Orifice
Spermatozoa are produced in the testes, beginning a journey that plays an important role in reproduction. Explore the detailed path sperm takes from the testes to the urethral orifice with the end goal of passing on its DNA by fertilizing a female egg.
6. The HPG Axis: Hormones of Male Reproduction
Male reproduction is controlled by hormones. Learn about this process, including how males change as they experience puberty. Explore the HPG Axis, the hypothalamus, the anterior pituitary, LH, FSH, gonads, testosterone, and inhibin.
7. Female Reproductive System: Internal Anatomy
The female reproductive system has multiple structures with specific purposes and functions. Learn about the internal anatomy of the female reproductive system, including the ovaries, cervix, uterine tubes, and uterus.
8. The Uterus and Uterine Wall: Structure and Parts
The uterus is a female reproductive organ that is essential for proper fetal development. Learn about the function of the uterus and uterine wall, the three layers of the uterus (perimetrium, myometrium, & endometrium), and how each layer functions in the proper development of a fetus.
9. External Anatomy of the Female Reproductive System
The external anatomy of the female reproductive system involves six main structures developed from the same tissues that make the male's external genitals. Learn about the skin folds in the vulva and explore the female erectile structures, including the clitoris and vestibular bulbs.
10. HPG Axis: Hormonal Control of the Ovarian Cycle
The female HPG axis involves the hypothalamus, anterior pituitary and female gonads (or ovaries) and allows the brain to communicate with the ovaries using hormones. Explore the function of the HPG axis, GnRH patterns, LH and FSH hormones, and HPG signaling.
11. Phases of The Ovarian Cycle: Overview from Puberty to Menopause
The ovarian cycle functions in phases from puberty to menopause. Explore the two parts of the ovarian cycle, how timing is involved, the puberty and menopause cycles, and the two phases of reproduction.
12. Follicular Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
During the ovarian cycle, the oocyte, which is the female gamete, grows and matures through different phases, the first of which is the follicular phase. Explore the stages in the follicular phase, including primordial follicle, primary follicle, secondary follicle, tertiary follicle, and ovulation.
13. Luteal Phase of the Ovarian Cycle
The luteal phase or post-ovulatory phase of the ovarian cycle occurs immediately after the ovaries release an egg. Learn what happens after ovulation occurs and discover when the formation of the corpus luteum takes place.
14. The Uterine Cycle: Phases and Endometrial Changes
Hormonal changes trigger the phases the female reproduction system goes through over the course of about 28 days. Explore how the phases and endometrial changes specific to the uterine cycle prepare the female body for the implantation of a fertilized egg.
15. The Uterine Cycle: Menses
The uterine cycle is also called the menses or menstrual cycle which takes place each month in preparation for a possible pregnancy. Learn about the menstrual cycle including why and how it occurs.
16. The Uterine Cycle: Proliferative Phase
The proliferative phase of the uterine cycle is where the endometrium of the uterus is rebuilt. Learn about the uterine cycle, endometrial zones, and the proliferative phase.
17. The Uterine Cycle: Secretory Phase
The secretory phase of the uterine cycle (menses) is when a suitable environment is created for an incoming embryo. Discover more about the secretory phase and its relationship to the uterine glands, progesterone, and fertilization.
18. The Female Reproductive Axis: Coordination of the Brain, Ovaries & Uterus
The female brain emits hormones to let the ovaries know it's time to start the female reproductive process. Learn how the coordination of the brain, ovaries, and uterus results in a continuous, integrated system to prepare the body for reproduction.
19. Ovulation to Implantation: Oocyte's Path through Uterine Tubes
Ovulation to implantation involves the journey of the oocyte through uterine tubes. Explore how the egg leaves the ovary and travels down the uterine tube, what happens to the egg if it is not fertilized, and the process of fertilization and cellular division.
20. Absolute Refractory Period: Definition & Significance
This lesson is on the absolute refractory period, a time when a neuron cannot fire another impulse. This lesson will explain the mechanism behind the absolute refractory period and the function.
21. Relative Refractory Period: Definition & Significance
This lesson is about the relative refractory period - the amount of time that a neuron needs additional stimulus to be able to send an action potential. In this lesson, you will learn how neurons communicate, what the relative refractory period is, and why it is important for our bodies.
22. Gonads: Definition & Function
Learn what the gonads are and examine their functions. We will look into both the male and female gonads. You can take the quiz afterwards to test your understanding of these organs.
23. Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG): Side Effects & Definition
HCG is a reproductive hormone. This lesson will discuss the basics of HCG, the importance of HCG and possible side effects of synthetic HCG used for treatment. Follow along. It will be gland!
24. Endometrial Ablation: Procedure, Recovery & Side Effects
Endometrial ablation is a medical procedures that helps women who suffer from abnormal uterine bleeding. The lesson below outlines what an ablation is, why it is done, basics about the procedure and the recovery and side effects of having the procedure done.
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