About This Chapter
Who's it for?
This unit of our AP Biology Homeschool course will benefit any student who is trying to learn about the processes involved in animal reproduction and development. There is no faster or easier way to learn about animal reproduction and development. Among those who would benefit are:
- Students who require an efficient, self-paced course of study to learn about spermatogenesis, oogenesis, embryonic development, and the purpose of fate mapping.
- Homeschool parents looking to spend less time preparing lessons and more time teaching.
- Homeschool parents who need a biology curriculum that appeals to multiple learning types (visual or auditory).
- Gifted students and students with learning differences.
How it works:
- Students watch a short, fun video lesson that covers a specific unit topic.
- Students and parents can refer to the video transcripts to reinforce learning.
- Short quizzes and an animal reproduction and development unit exam confirm understanding or identify any topics that require review.
Animal Reproduction and Development Unit Objectives:
- Understand the process of sexual reproduction in animals.
- Learn how males produce sperm through spermatogenesis.
- Discover how females produce ova through oogenesis.
- Explore how the morula and blastula form during early embryonic development.
- Identify the steps involved with mammalian embryo implantation and placenta formation.
- Understand the structure and function of the placenta.
- Know the function of the amnion, yolk sac and other extraembryonic membranes.
- Examine the process of gastrulation and how it results in three embryonic germ layers.
- Learn about the function of Spemann's organizer.
- Discover the roles of signaling molecules, inhibitors and concentration gradients in embryonic tissue differentiation.
- Understand the purpose of fate mapping studies and the techniques scientists utilize.
1. Overview of Animal Reproduction and Development
At this stage in life, you likely know where babies come from. However, did you know that some animals can make clones of themselves and reproduce sexually too? In this lesson, you'll learn more about sexual reproduction and early vertebrate development.
2. Spermatogenesis: How the Male Reproductive System Produces Sperm
In this lesson, you'll learn the series of steps necessary to produce a fully functional sperm cell. You'll also look at the structure of a sperm cell and see how it's equipped to venture forth into new territory.
3. Oogenesis: How the Female Reproductive System Produces Eggs
Did you know that a human female already has all of the oocytes that she will make in her entire life before she is even born? In this lesson, you'll learn how the human body produces an ovum through the process of oogenesis. You'll also learn how polar bodies help to ensure that female gametes are of high quality even though they are not produced in high quantities.
4. Early Embryonic Development: The Morula and Blastula
This lesson on the early stages of mammalian development covers the processes following fertilization, such as cleavage, the morula formation and blastula formation. Watch to learn what the inner cell mass, trophoblast cells and blastocyst are, as well as their functions within embryonic development.
5. Embryo Implantation and Placenta Formation
This lesson will cover the journey the mammalian embryo first makes after it has been fertilized. Learn how maternal blood moves through the embryo, and how the placenta is formed.
6. The Placenta and the Fetus: Structure and Function
Have you ever wondered how a baby eats before it's born or if babies go to the bathroom while still inside their mother? In this lesson, you will learn about the placenta and how it works to ensure a fetus stays well-nourished and healthy before birth.
7. Amniotic Fluid, The Amnion, and the Yolk Sac
From a chick developing inside an egg to a human baby growing in its mother's womb, all developing vertebrates rely on a support system to protect them, feed them, supply them with oxygen, remove wastes, and do much, much more to ensure that the embryo grows and develops into a fully functional organism. In this lesson, you'll learn about the different parts of that support system and some of the things that they do.
8. Gastrulation and the 3 Germ Layers (Ectoderm, Endoderm & Mesoderm)
Gastrulation is a key process in embryonic development - it's how a simple ball of cells begins to grow into a fully functioning being! Watch this lesson to learn about a key process in the development of almost all multicellular organisms.
9. Spemann's Organizer: Controller of Cell Fate
Have you ever wondered how different parts of a developing embryo know what kind of tissue to become? What prevents two heads from developing on the same embryo, or for that matter, what ensures that a head develops at all? A small group of cells called Spemann's organizer determines the fates of the cells around them.
10. Concentration Gradients, Signaling Molecules & Inhibitors in Development
The discovery and characterization of Spemann's organizer was a significant achievement in the field of developmental biology, but this small piece of the dorsal lip is only the tip of the iceberg when it comes to coordinating the differentiation of all of the various tissue types in a growing embryo. In this lesson, you'll learn about concentration gradients and how they can be used to create various combinations of signaling molecules in different parts of the embryo.
11. How Signaling Molecules Control Differentiation
From signaling molecules to transcription factors and gene expression, in this lesson you'll learn what it takes for a cell to differentiate. You'll also learn some of the ways a cell can make sense of different combinations of signaling molecules and how these combinations can be used to guide a cell through the process of differentiation.
12. How Fate Mapping Is Used to Track Cell Development
Over the years, scientists have developed several methods to label and track groups of cells as they develop. These types of experiments are called fate mapping studies. In this lesson, you'll learn the basics of fate mapping and see how technology has allowed scientists to improve fate mapping techniques.
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Other chapters within the AP Biology: Homeschool Curriculum course
- AP Biology - Science Basics: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - The Origin of Life on Earth: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Evolution Overview: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Inorganic Chemistry Review: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Organic Chemistry Review: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Enzymatic Biochemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Cell Biology: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Biological Systems Requirements - Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Cell Division: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Metabolic Biochemistry: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - DNA and RNA Overview: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - DNA Replication: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Transcription & Translation Process: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Genetics and Heredity: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Genetic Mutations: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Phylogeny & Classification of Organisms: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Plant Biology: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Plant Reproduction & Growth: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Reproductive Systems Anatomy & Physiology: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Human Body Systems: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - The Nervous, Immune & Endocrine Systems: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Ecology Overview: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Animal Behavior: Homeschool Curriculum
- Basic Molecular Biology Laboratory Techniques: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Analyzing Scientific Data: Homeschool Curriculum
- AP Biology - Laboratory: Homeschool Curriculum