About This Chapter
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Students will review:
This chapter helps students review the concepts in a molecular biology laboratory techniques unit of a standard AP Biology course. Topics covered include:
- DNA plasmid
- Agarose gel electrophoresis
- Bacterial transformation
- Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)
- Sanger method for sequencing DNA
1. What is Genetic Engineering? - Definition and Examples
Genetic engineering involves modifying a host organism's genetic makeup by using vectors as a transfer agent. Understand the definition and examples of the process, as well as the difference between transgenic and genetically modified organisms.
2. What is a DNA Plasmid? - Importance to Genetic Engineering
DNA plasmid is a vital component of genetic engineering. Learn about DNA plasmids and the three characteristics, including multiple cloning sites, replication origin, and selectable markers, that make DNA plasmids so important in genetic engineering.
3. Restriction Enzymes: Function and Definition
Understand how restriction enzymes function. Learn about genetic engineering, the definition of a restriction enzyme, the recognition sequence, the palindromic sequence, and the sticky ends of single-strand DNA.
4. How Ligase is Used to Engineer Recombinant DNA
In relation to recombinant DNA engineering, DNA ligase conjoins two DNA molecules while restriction enzymes cut DNA molecules. Explore how DNA ligase and restriction enzymes work together to facilitate recombinant DNA technology.
5. What is Agarose Gel Electrophoresis?
Gel electrophoresis uses an electrical current to separate biological molecules based on size. Discover concepts like genetic engineering, gel electrophoresis, and agarose.
6. Ethidium Bromide, Loading Buffer & DNA Ladder: Visualizing DNA and Determining its Size
Ethidium bromide, loading buffers, and DNA ladders play a key role in visualizing DNA and determining its size. Explore the importance of these elements in agarose gel electrophoresis - a method that separates biological molecules using electricity.
7. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Equipment & Procedure
Agarose gel electrophoresis is a laboratory procedure that uses an electrical current to separate biological molecules. Explore this procedure and learn about the equipment required to perform it, including a gel box, power supply, loading buffer, dye front, ethidium bromide, and UV box.
8. Agarose Gel Electrophoresis: Results Analysis
Learn to analyze and interpret the results of an agarose gel electrophoresis. Explore how this lab procedure is used to analyze and troubleshoot the results of restriction digestion or a ligation step in an experiment.
9. Bacterial Transformation: Definition, Process and Genetic Engineering of E. coli
Bacterial transformation is the process of changing the genetic makeup of a cell by introducing DNA from its surrounding environment. Explore the roles heat shock, recovery, and antibiotic selection play in the process of genetic engineering in this video.
10. Bacterial Transformation: Antibiotic Selection and Positive & Negative Controls
Scientists conduct carefully designed experiments to form hypotheses and replicate their findings in order to verify them. Learn about bacterial transformation and discover how it uses antibiotic selection and positive and negative controls to identify bacteria that can produce repeatable results.
11. PCR: Reagents Used in Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a procedure that creates copies of DNA using reagents. DNA is amplified, and the amplified DNA regions are identified by other DNA pieces using reagents, such as template DNA and PCR primers, and other key parts of DNA, including nucleotides and tag polymerases. Learn about that process, including the different elements that makes conditions optimal for PCR to occur.
12. PCR: Steps Involved in Polymerase Chain Reaction
Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a laboratory procedure that can create replicas of DNA. Explore the three steps of this revolutionary process: denaturation, annealing, and extension.
13. The Sanger Method of DNA Sequencing
The Sanger Method of DNA sequencing uses dideoxynucleotides to determine DNA sequencing. Explore the dideoxynucleotide structure, chain terminators, and how to interpret Sanger sequencing in this lesson.
14. Monomers: Types & Examples
Monomers are small molecules able to bond together to form more complex molecules. Discover more about the types of organic monomers and examples including carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
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